Who Won the 20th Century

In: Social Issues

Submitted By JC23
Words 1110
Pages 5
Yasmin Alibhai- Brown
The post-war reconstruction of Britain delivered the welfare state, based on the fundamental concepts of state duty of care to the least able citizens and of social mutuality. In spite of being continually battered by the right, that belief system was embedded in the national psyche. From the late sixties to the end of the nineties, whatever party was in power, progressive values fought for and transformed the public space. That was the left’s epoch, our push, turning the juggernaut of historical and societal conservatism, towards enlightenment and honesty.
Politics opened up, too slowly perhaps at first, but the pace quickened over the years. From 1968 to 1976, the first equality laws were passed giving women and people of colour legal protection against discrimination. The ILEA and GLC promoted education and equality for all and challenged the Establishment story of Britain. I worked as an adult education lecturer for ILEA then and know how we made the system and curriculum vastly more inclusive and innovative than it had ever been before. One of my students, Sandra, 29, daughter of a miner, went on to the Open University (which opened in 1971) and eventually became head of a school in the Midlands. In 1987, the first post-war MPs of colour were elected. Women’s rights came in from the cold and became part of the national conversation, and company and public policies.
The cultural revolution of the sixties led to more than simply new sexual freedoms. Once the barricades were stormed, all old traditions and institutions were shaken and stirred. Eventually they gave way and new blood rushed in. In 1971 VS Naipaul won the Booker Prize followed in later years by, Salman Rushdie, Arundhati Roy, Ben Okri and Kazuo Ishiguro. In the early nineties, Hugh Quarshie, the talented actor of African, English and Dutch ancestry, played Mark Antony and…...

Similar Documents

Conformity and Obedience in the 20th Century

...Conformity and Obedience in the 20th Century The desire to be accepted and belong to a group is an undeniable human need.   But how does this need affect an individual?   Social psychologists have conducted numerous experiments and concluded that, through various forms of social influence, groups can change their members' thoughts, feelings, and behavior.         In her essay "Group Minds," Doris Lessing discusses our paradoxical ability to call ourselves individuals and our inability to realize that groups define and influence us.   We, as humans, hold individualism in the highest regard yet fail to realize that groups diminish our individuality.   Lessing writes, "when we're in a group, we tend to think as that group does... but we also find our thinking changing because we belong to a group" (p. 334).   Groups have the tendency to generate norms, or standards for behavior in certain situations.   Not following these norms can make you stand out and, therefore, groups have the ability to influence our thoughts and actions in ways that are consistent with the groups'.   Lessing's essay helps set the context to understand the experiments that social psychologists Solomon Asch, Stanley Milgram and Philip Zimbardo conducted to explain conformity and obedience. Solomon Asch's experiment in "Opinions and Social Pressure" studied a subject's ability to yield to social pressure when placed within a group of strangers.   His research helped illustrate how groups......

Words: 1201 - Pages: 5

British Literature of the 20th Century

...Contents Introduction 3 At the Turn of the Century 4 The 20th Century Literary Background 5 Modernism 6 Poets of the First World War 11 The Interwar Years 13 British Postwar Literature 19 Conclusion 27 References 29 Introduction The 20th century seems to be the most dramatic and unique: it witnessed two world wars and great social, economic and political changes. All this events could not but find their reflection in the arts in general and in the literature in particular. The urgency of the work is determined by the complexity of the period considered and variety of forms and trends which appeared during the century. The object of the project is British literature. The aim of the project is to consider the peculiarities and distinct features of the British literature of the 20th century. In order to gain the project’s aim, during its implementation the following practical issues were studied: - the most distinguished writers of the period; - their contribution to development of the British literature; - key topics. The project’s aim and issues considered predetermined the choice of methods of research. During the project’s implementation the following methods were used: critical survey of the sources on the issue considered, as well as comparison and analysis. Theoretical value of the project is constituted by the analysis of the peculiarities and distinct features of the British literature of the 20th century. Practical value of the......

Words: 9384 - Pages: 38

Media and the 20th Century

...Media in the 20th Century John D. Allmon COM/156 March 3, 2013 Carey Rodriquez ------------------------------------------------- Media in the 20th Century I. To fully understand mass media, we need to come to grips with the enormous role that mass media has played in shaping that culture over the past one hundred years. With the development and evolution of mass media, there have been tremendous advantages and disadvantages that have contributed to major changes in society throughout the 20th century. However, these changes not only affect society but it has also affected the way business is done today. With the dawn of media convergence, globalization of media, audience dependency, concentration of ownership, and issue of media literacy; all the parties in the mass communication process are forced to think dramatically about their positions in it. Mass media can affect knowledge, attitudes, opinions and behavior of individuals. These effects can be immediate or delayed, for a short duration or long-lasting. II. With the development and evolution of media, we find that media convergence and media dependency have become a major factor in how society is affected and the way we respond throughout our everyday life. Encyclopedia Britannica (2013) states that, “Media convergence, a phenomenon involving the interlocking of computing, and technology information companies,  telecommunications networks, and content providers from the publishing worlds of......

Words: 1790 - Pages: 8

20th Century

...Temple Sherith Israel is a world-class sample of religious architecture. Its designer was Albert Pissis, a Mexican-born French-Catholic who studied at the prestigious L’Ecole des Beau-Arts in Paris, France. When Pissis returned to San Francisco, he brought with him a neo-classical style that combined renaissance-revival with post-impressionist views. He began introducing his style starting with the Hibernia Bank building in 1892 and continued to incorporate it throughout his works. In creating the Temple for the congregation, Pissis attempted to produce something that would serve its members for generations, as well as incorporate visual design elements that were aesthetically pleasing. The result was a creation that stands more than 120 feet tall, features a dome with an external diameter of 60 feet, and contains more than 20,000 square feet of usable space. The congregation’s practical needs were also kept in mind—the Temple sits more than 1,400 members. The structure also contains 121 glass windows, 89 of which are ornamentally leaded and of which 32 are arched. While the Temple Sherith Israel was the only synagogue Pissis has designed, he has achieved the difficult task of combining form and function into this great building. The building’s only flaw is that it included unreinforced masonry, which following the San Francisco earthquake of 1989, was deemed by the city as in need of a retrofit. To Pissis’ credit, this would have been extremely difficult to predict......

Words: 411 - Pages: 2

Learning in the 20th Century

...but it also doubled as a form of negative reinforcement to incentivize poorly performing and troublesome students. In the western world, specifically the United States, people began to turn away from physically abusing students and began to look for more effective ways of educating the nation’s larval citizenry. It would be unfair to speak of education theories without mentioning Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, as they together were of the first to put forth an effort towards understanding, among many things, how people think and why. Roughly 2000 years later, there were a growing number of educated individuals beginning to take second look at everything we thought we knew about being human. Among these people, there was Ivan Pavlov, who began ringing a bell, and not only did Clarence get his wings, but what was learned through the well-known story of Pavlov and his dogs also served as the impetus for John Watson and B. F. Skinner and their ground-breaking notion of Behaviorism. Behaviorism, simplified, is the theory that a person is the product of their environment, and to change a person’s behavior, one needs to simply adjust their environment. More specifically, the term behaviorism was coined by John Watson which he defined as a “theoretical perspective in which learning and behavior are described and explained in terms of stimulus-response relationships” (Ormrod, 2010). Incidentally, this theory does not counter indicate the use of corporal punishment as a......

Words: 2323 - Pages: 10

Technology in the 20th Century

...Technology in the 20th Century HUM/300 Technology in the 20th Century Technology is rapidly evolving and has been for many years. Scientists and inventors are always on the lookout to invent something to make the average person’s daily life easier. The 20th century brought many technological advances in the world from the television to the air conditioner. Many of the technologies so fundamental to everyday life came from advancement during this time. The author of the paper will discuss three technological developments in the 20th century including: the airplane, the automobile, and the computer. The Airplane For centuries humans wanted to invent a device that would allow them to fly like birds. Kites, gliders, and air balloons were many of man’s creations to attempt to derive the privilege of flying. Two men, Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright, were the first to find some success in inventing a device that enabled flying. On December 17, 1903, the Wright brothers flew there invention for the first time. However, this was only a small start because their aircraft did not fly very high and it only stayed in the air for about a minute. Although this was a small triumph in the goal of flight it marked the beginning of the technological advances that produced the modern airplane. When the Wright brothers invented their aircraft they received immediate recognition and other inventors and aviators worked hard at inventing a better aircraft. In 1909, Louis Bleriot, a French...

Words: 848 - Pages: 4

20th Century Literature

...May 10th, 2010 Topic #1: Describe some characteristics of literature in the 20th century and illustrate these characteristics using the texts studied in class. Okay let’s start with William Butler Yeats, who was not only the main figure in the Irish literary renaissance but also the twentieth century’s greatest poet in the English language. Yeats constantly uses allusive imagery and large symbolic structures. Yeats adopted a cyclical model of history which he created a private mythology that allowed him to come to terms with both cultural and personal pain. This model also helped explain the symptoms of the Western civilization’s declining spiral; the plight of contemporary Irish society and the chaos of European culture around World War 1. Yeats shares with writers like Rilke and T. S. Eliot the quest for larger meaning in a time of trouble and the use of symbolic language to give verbal form to that quest. For many years it is Yeats’s mastery of images that defines his work. From his early use of symbols as private keys, or dramatic metaphors for complex personal emotions, to the immense cosmology of his last work, he continued to create a highly visual poetry whose power derives from the dramatic interweaving of specific images. One of his poems called When You Are Old pleads his love for the beautiful actress and Irish nationalist Maud Gonne, whom he met in 1889 and who repeatedly refused to marry him. From the love poems of his youth to......

Words: 1849 - Pages: 8

20th Century Baseball

...20th Century Baseball In 1865 towards the end of the American civil war, U.S. military officer, Abner Doubleday, had decided to draw up a sketch of a diamond shaped field and wrote up some simple rules and a few days later put his ideas to live use. He had just invented the greatest game of all time. Baseball (baseballalmanac.com). Six years later, what was once a game for military men had now started to become the national pastime. On May 4, 1871, the very first professional game was played. At this time, there was only one league, the National Association of Baseball Players. On this day, the Cleveland Forest Citys would take on the Fort Wayne Kekiongas where Fort Wayne would go on to win 2-0 over Cleveland. With only about 500 people in attendance, the game lasted for a little more than two hours as Kekiongas pitcher, Bobby Mathews, would make history as the very first pitcher to have a win on his record throw the first shutout game as Mathews went on later in the year to be tied as one of the league leaders in shutouts. In 1876, the National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs was organized, but today we simplified the name just to the National League (Mckissack 12). Throughout the rest of the late 1800’s, baseball massively grew in popularity as all-stars were being born. Baseball has a long and incredible history, especially in the twentieth- century, with events such as the first night game in 1935, the first World Series in 1903, and Babe Ruth’s “Called Shot?”......

Words: 2544 - Pages: 11

20th Century Martyr

...Salvadoran people and his impact is seen in many places. People who knew him, and also those who never got a chance to meet him can also say that his spirit lives with them in El Salvador. I truly enjoyed this movie and it made me reflect on what I believe in as a person. Sometimes as young people we often think “no one person can make a difference”, or “why do it someone else will probably help” and that is what is wrong the world. One person may not change everything but they sure do leave a huge impact. The people of El Salvador must be very strong, but they must also be willing to fight for what they believe in. There must be change, but in order for there to be change one must “be the change you wish to seen in the world” (Gandhi). Oscar Romero was the change. I believe that when it comes to religion we should all be able to coexist. It should not matter if you are Atheist or Catholic or any other religion in between, people should be able to worship what they please. Young people need to be motivated to try and seek for change. The simplest things can help, whether it be spreading awareness, or volunteering in third world countries any bit helps. When watching this movie again it made me feel grateful for the simple things that I do not constantly saying thank you for. It makes you realize that you can not take the small things for granted in life. It saddens me to know that there are people out there who don’t know how they are going to get by every day. I really......

Words: 1030 - Pages: 5

Political Movements 20th Century

...Political Movements in the 20th Century HUM/300 Political Movements in the 20th Century During the 20th century several major political events took place that changed the worldwide view of civilization and shook up the collective consciousness. World War I and II showed the dark side of technology when used to hurt humanity. Civil movements surged around the world as a result of minorities trying to regain their identity, which various governments throughout the world restricted. The authors will examine major political events that had a notable effect on the 20th century, including, the influences of World War I and II, the surge of the Civil Rights Movement, and the Gender Equality Movement. The author’s examination will consider the works of artists and how his or her creative expression reflected the mood of the era. Political Events: World War I and II World War I (WWI) started in 1914, and lasted through 1918. The political event that triggered this war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The war tactics employed in World War I changed the methods and strategies in future conflicts bringing more devastation. Some of the new strategies included trench warfare, chemical warfare, and upgraded technology; it introduced chemical weapons including chlorine and phosgene, which produced devastating damages. The exposure to high levels of these gases resulted in temporary blindness,......

Words: 2182 - Pages: 9

Technology in the 20th Century Paper

...Introduction The twentieth century was one of the most remarkable centuries in history referring to the technology advances and scientific discoveries that it had. They are still continuing today. The advances that I believe shape our world today that occurred in the twentieth century are internet, radio and antibiotics. Like I mentioned before, there were so many advances; even inventions. Yet I feel that these three are extremely important. Radio The impact that the radio had on the twentieth century is not appreciated. Not only did the radio make it possible for a person to be heard thousands miles away without any use of wire. During the end of World War 2 and into the 1950’s the radio was the center of family life. The radio was the source of entertainment and news. The only time the radio lost its fame was when the television was invented, and when families were replacing the radio with a television. Sadly today the radio is mainly used in vehicles. The radio is a great tool for drivers to keep from falling asleep behind the wheel or some radios in new models of cars; they can communicate through their radio speakers. The advances that the radio had during the twentieth century been very important and life changing. When the radio was first invented it was a great success and it did the job it entailed. During the 20th Century the radio made some very important advances, they are advances ranging from transmute radio signals to amplifier levels, and FM radio...

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

20th Century American Immigrations

...HIST125-1201A-12 Phase II – 20th Century American Immigrations 18 January 2012 Jennifer Doucette Colorado Technical University I am a German-American Scientist, “born in Ulm, Wurttemberg on March 14, 1879” to Hermann and Pauline. Because my mother loved music, which enhanced my appreciation for music, she provided violin lessons for me when I was around six years of age. Most of my time was spent in intellectual solitude and relaxation. I spent my early years growing up in Munich, where I begin school at Luitpold Gymnasium, and my father manufactured electrical products. I have one sister named Maja, she was born in 1881. When my father’s business failed, he and I moved to Milan Italy. In 1896, I begin studying in Zurich, at the Swiss Federal Polytechnic Institute. I received my teaching degree in physics and mathematics in 1900; the same year I renounced my German citizenship, leaving me stateless until 1901, when I become a Swiss citizen. (http://german.about.com) I was employed at the Swiss Patent Office in Berlin from 1902 to 1909, at which time, a fellow colleague at Polytechnic Institute named Mileva Maric, out of wedlock, gave birth to our daughter, Liserl. We later gave her up for adoption. On January 6, 1903, Mileva and I were married in Zurich; we have two sons. (Jahr, 2005) In 1905, I published my doctoral dissertation, including Relativitatstheorie, and received a PhD from the University of Zurich. I served, in 1909 as a Professor at the University of Zurich and...

Words: 1296 - Pages: 6

Europe's Identity of 20th Century

...Britt Vonk History 158c Prof. Cramsey Europe’s Identity Crisis Europe today presents an attractive image: a plethora of states where people live in close proximity, prosperous, stable and (mostly) at peace with themselves and the world. Europe yesterday, however, was a little different: the killing field of the 20th century. From 1912 to 1949 it was the site of war, destitution and at least three sustained and partly successful attempts to destroy and exterminate whole populations. Hundreds of millions of Europeans were killed, imprisoned, tortured, uprooted and expelled in the name of racial, political and national ideological goals. The thirty years of war was followed an unprecedented 45-year period of peace, even if it was a peace imposed by the Cold War. How should one tell the story of twentieth century European history? Was it the process of capitalism and liberal democracy, referring the world wars as aberrations of “true” European history? In Dark Continent, Mark Mazower highlights the historical contingency of this European era. “Though we may like to think democracy’s victory in the Cold War proves its deep roots in Europe’s soil, history tells us otherwise” (Mazower, 5) He ties his interpretation into his themes of decline, fall, and social struggles in Europe to his thesis that communism, Nazism, and democracy are more related than they might seem. Through these views of the forms of governments and the main social struggle of the era, Mazower helps......

Words: 997 - Pages: 4

20th Century Genius Award

...The 20th Century Genius Award Hum/102 October 19, 2011 The 20th Century Genius Award The nominated figure that stands out in my mind as a genius of Western culture would be Albert Einstein. His work and cultural contributions can be classified in both the Age of Modernism and the Age of Pluralism for the 20th Century Genius Award. The following examples will include a synopsis of the life and times of Albert Einstein, A survey of the ideas and works recognizing the reflections of his genius, and an appraisal of his impact on the arts and culture. Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 to Hermann and Pauline Einstein a scientifically minded family, who were non-practicing Jews in Ulm, Wurttemberg Germany. As a child, he was very curious, and lively. Albert attended a Catholic elementary school, and his mother insisted for him to take violin lessons. Although he detested the lessons, and later on decide not to continue with them, he would later on find an appreciation and great comfort in Mozart’s violin sonatas. At the early age of five, Albert was fascinated by complex scientific and mathematical concepts at a very early age. Hermann Einstein shows his son a pocket compass, and Einstein with his sense of wonder, and curiosity realizes that something in “empty” space controlled the needle; he later on describes the experience as a revelation of his life. Albert Einsteins hobbies was to build models and mechanical devices for his amusement although he......

Words: 1724 - Pages: 7

Vietnam and the 20th Century Experience

...Essay Vietnam and the 20th Century Experience Introduction This paper analyzes the sociopolitical, cultural, and economic characteristics of European nations that drove them to establish policies of overseas colonization. Societies developing within the constraints of the European landmass had many incentives to move beyond their own borders into other regions, areas often occupied by another culture. European nations have a long history of being competitive with one another. Cultural and religious pride and arrogance, and an intolerance of differing cultures and religions, were used to justify imperialistic policies of domination and suppression of local peoples. Europeans, of necessity, would bring along their economies of technology and infrastructure to support their control of the local population. This would also include their Latin-based language and educational systems. Attempts to assimilate local culture into the European culture were often a source of conflict within the overseas colonies. European Cultural Characteristics Religion, and particularly the evangelical mission of Catholicism, has strongly influenced European cultures since the Middle Ages. The French utilized Catholic Missionaries as a way to access many overseas regions, including that part of Asia later to be known as “French Indochina.” Missionaries are typically non-violent and non-threatening. They often could enter a foreign country and merge with the local culture without opposition...

Words: 589 - Pages: 3

Baixar toque para celular | Kapcsolat | One Piece 550 Marine Headquarters