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Kinds of Sentences and Their Punctuation
A sentence may be one of four kinds, depending upon the number and type(s) of clauses it contains. Review: An independent clause contains a subject, a verb, and a complete thought. A dependent clause contains a subject and a verb, but no complete thought.

1. A SIMPLE SENTENCE has one independent clause. Punctuation note: NO commas separate two compound elements (subject, verb, direct object, indirect object, subjective complement, etc.) in a simple sentence.
2. A COMPOUND SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined by A. a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so), B. a conjunctive adverb (e.g. however, therefore), or C. a semicolon alone. Punctuation patterns (to match A, B, and C above): A. Independent clause, coordinating conjunction independent clause. B. Independent clause; conjunctive adverb, independent clause. C. Independent clause; independent clause.
3. A COMPLEX SENTENCE has one dependent clause (headed by a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun ) joined to an independent clause. Punctuation patterns (to match A, B, C and D above): A. Dependent clause, independent clause B. Independent clause dependent clause C. Independent, nonessential dependent clause, clause. D. Independent essential dependent clause clause. 4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses. Punctuation patterns: | | Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. | A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two. | CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) Ic, and ic 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.
A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. or Ic dc. 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc, c. or I dc c. 3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)

4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses. Punctuation patterns: | | Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. | A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two. | CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) Ic, and ic 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.
A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. or Ic dc. 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc, c. or I dc c. 3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)
4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses. Punctuation patterns: | | Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. | A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two. | CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) Ic, and ic 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.
A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. or Ic dc. 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc, c. or I dc c. 3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)
4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses. Punctuation patterns: | | Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. | A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two. | CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) Ic, and ic 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.
A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. or Ic dc. 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc, c. or I dc c. 3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)
4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses. Punctuation patterns: | | Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. | A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two. | CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) Ic, and ic 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.
A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. or Ic dc. 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc, c. or I dc c. 3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)
4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses. Punctuation patterns: | | Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. | A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two. | CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) Ic, and ic 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.
A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. or Ic dc. 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc, c. or I dc c. 3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)
4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses. Punctuation patterns: | | Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. | A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two. | CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) Ic, and ic 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.
A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. or Ic dc. 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc, c. or I dc c. 3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)
4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses. Punctuation patterns: | | Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. | A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two. | CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) Ic, and ic 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.
A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. or Ic dc. 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc, c. or I dc c. 3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)
4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses. Punctuation patterns: | | Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. | A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two. | CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) Ic, and ic 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.
A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. or Ic dc. 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc, c. or I dc c. 3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)
4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses. Punctuation patterns: | | Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. | A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two. | CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) Ic, and ic 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.
A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. or Ic dc. 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc, c. or I dc c. 3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)
4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses. Punctuation patterns: | | Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. | A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two. | CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) Ic, and ic 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.
A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. or Ic dc. 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc, c. or I dc c. 3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)
4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses. Punctuation patterns: | | Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. | A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two. | CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) Ic, and ic 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.
A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. or Ic dc. 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc, c. or I dc c. 3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)
4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses. Punctuation patterns: | | Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. | A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two. | CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) Ic, and ic 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.
A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. or Ic dc. 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc, c. or I dc c. 3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE)
4. A COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses. Punctuation patterns: | | Follow the rules given above for compound and complex sentences. | A compound-complex sentence is merely a combination of the two. | CONNECTORS--COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Two independent clauses may be joined by 1. Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) Ic, and ic 2. Conjunctive adverbs Ic; therefore, ic.
A dependent (subordinate) clause may be introduced by 1. Subordinating conjunctions (ADVERB CLAUSE) Dc, ic. or Ic dc. 2. Relative pronouns (ADJECTIVE CLAUSE) I, dc, c. or I dc c. 3. Relative pronoun, subordinating conjunctions, or adverbs (NOUN CLAUSE) fghdrfghdfghdofkh;lgdmfh;lmdflhdf hdh fgjhfghfgjfmbmghkj ghj
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