Rabies

In: Science

Submitted By mfanous
Words 883
Pages 4
Rabies – A zoonotic disease Rabies is a zoonotic disease, meaning it is transmitted to humans from animals. The rabies virus is a member of the Rhabdovirus family and it is caused by the virus Neurotropic Lyssavirus (Woodroffe, Ginsberg & Macdonald, 1997). It leads to an acute, central nervous system infection, which is characterized by CNS irritation, followed by paralysis and death (Woodroffe, Ginsberg & Macdonald, 1997). It occurs in more than 150 countries and territories and dogs are the source of 99% of human rabies deaths. The natural reservoir for the rabies virus is in the wild animal that bites a human. Animal reservoirs include semi-wild dogs, skunks, raccoons, fox, bats and mongoose (Woodroffe, Ginsberg & Macdonald, 1997). Essentially, the frequency of contacts between susceptible and infectious individuals is the rate-determining step in the spread of the disease but it is extremely difficult to measure in the wild (White, Harris and Smith, 1995). There is an increase in rabies in late summer and early fall in red foxes. This increase in rabies corresponds to time of dispersal and reproductive maturation in juvenile males (Johnston and Beauregard, 1969). A limited natural human immune response to rabies does exist. A reason for a failure to protect in humans is the poor immunological response that the virus provokes. The natural killer (NK) cell activity was assessed in patients with rabies. There was no significant difference in number of killer cells between rabies patients and normal controls. Results showed that NK cells of rabies patients were not fully stimulated and that might contribute to the virulence of rabies (Panpanich, Hemachuda, Piyasirishilp, Manatsathit, Wilde, and Phanuphak, 1992).

The behavioural symptoms of rabies are classic, however, a diagnosis that is only based on the symptoms is difficult because the symptoms are similar to…...

Similar Documents

Health Research in Region 2

...Development Goals (MDGs), the Vital Health Indices, National Objectives for Health via the Health Sector Reform Agenda, the Regional Research Agenda (RRA), Regional Research and Development Committee (RRDC), PNHRS thrusts and the survey results of the Research and Development resources available in the region. A technical working group was tasked to facilitate and fine tune workshop outputs and research areas identified during the consultative workshop. The last phase was the prioritization of health issues; concerns and research areas that would appropriately address research problems of the region. 5 The following are the identified priority areas for research in Region 02. Schistosomiasis, an emerging disease in Region 02. Rabies, KAP on the Rabies Control and Prevention Program. TB, the Effectiveness of the PPMD Strategy. Accidents, the Incidence of Vehicular Accidents to Substance Abuse and other related factors. 5. Healthy Lifestyle, the Effects of Stress and other related factors. 6. Reproductive Health, the Health Care Practices of Aetas and Indigenous Peoples in Region 02. -Knowledge Attitudes & Behaviors of Husbands on Reproductive Health. 7. Training & Affiliation of Students in the Health Facilities, its Effectiveness to Students and Health Facilities. 8. Health Care Financing and Regulation, the Perceptions and Satisfaction Level of Stakeholders. 9. Quality of Drinking Water in Some Urban Municipalities of Region 02.1 10. Financial Management of Government......

Words: 4984 - Pages: 20

How the Zombie Apocalypse Is Totally Possible.

...completely new one. What if Mad Cow disease became Mad Zombie disease? There wouldn’t have to be much of a change in the virus to reach the depiction of the zombies in the movie 28 Days Later, mobs of angry infected people that only want to do harm. There are other very common diseases that affect the brain as well. Let’s begin with rabies. How is rabies transferred? That’s right through contact through a bite or scratch from an infected animal or through large amounts of it in the air. According to Richard Harrigan the symptoms in animals are “Animals infected with rabies may appear sick, crazed, or vicious. This is the origin of the phrase "mad dog. However, animals infected with rabies may also appear overly friendly, docile, or confused. They may even appear completely normal. Seeing a normally nocturnal wild animal during the day (for example, a bat or a fox) or seeing a normally shy wild animal that appears strange or even friendly should raise suspicion that the animal may have rabies.” (Harrigan emedicinehealth.com) Now rabies in humans manifests itself in more of a very sick form. However viruses are always changing. Maybe one day a rabies will change so that the disease described above will become something that is also in humans. It would be a sick, crazed, or vicious human who decides to bite another, spreading his or her disease to the new one. There is one last disease that effects the brain that will be touched on in this essay, Alzheimer’s Disease.......

Words: 2108 - Pages: 9

Poe, a Man of Mystery

...There has been much debate on how Poe’s final days were spent. Some say he drank himself to death while other theories suggest carbon monoxide poisoning, epilepsy and rabies but no one really knows for sure. The story of Poe’s death began when he left Richmond September 27, 1849 and was supposed to be on his way to Philadelphia. He never arrived in Philadelphia. “On October 3, Poe was found in Baltimore in great distress. He was taken to Washington College Hospital where he died on October 7. His last words were "Lord, help my poor soul."” (“Edgar,” 2013, p. 2) In December 1978, Dr. J.F.C. Handel, Baltimore Commissioner of Health, certified that the cause of Poe’s death was “congestion of the brain,” this was published in the Maryland Historical Magazine, but his actual cause of death is subject to endless conjecture. In September 1996, R. Michael Benitez, M.D. reviewed Poe’s medical case. Dr. Benitez is a cardiologist at the University of Maryland Medical Center. “”No one can say conclusively that Poe died of rabies, since there was no autopsy after his death," says Dr. Benitez, who is also an assistant professor of medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. "But the historical accounts of Poe's condition in the hospital a few days before his death point to a strong possibility that he had rabies.”” (“Poe,” 2008, para. 2) The historical accounts of Poe’s final days tell a story much different when examined closer than what was originally assumed......

Words: 1058 - Pages: 5

Air Pollution

...0 | 0 | Giardiasis | 73 | 59 | Group B strep invasive | 691 | 407 | Haemophilus influenzae, invasive | (a) |   | Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome | 173 | 188 | Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) | 0 | 0 | Hepatitis A, acute | 0 | 7 | Hepatitis B, acute | 48 | 73 | Hepatitis C, acute | 135 | 85 | Histoplasmosis | 1 | 6 | Legionnaires disease | 115 | 173 | Leprosy (Hansen's disease) | 149 | 151 | Leptospirosis | 0 | 0 | Listeriosis | 0 | 2 | Lyme disease | 26 | 34 | Malaria | 135 | 194 | Measles | 60 | 66 | Meningitis, Aseptic | 0 | 3 | Meningococcal disease, invasive | (a) | (a) | Mumps | 24 | 35 | Pertussis | 31 | 78 | Plague | 1057 | 1509 | Poliomyelitis | 0 | 0 | Psittacosis | 0 | 0 | Q fever | 0 | 0 | Rabies, animal | 6 | 4 | Rabies, human | 115 | 51 | Reye Syndrome | 0 | 0 | Rocky Mountain spotted fever | 0 | 0 | Rubella | 37 | 51 | Salmonella | 0 | 0 | Shigella | 1982 | 1694 | S. aureus, vancomycin resistant | 841 | 262 | Strep Group A, invasive | 0 | 0 | Tetanus | 293 | 307 | Toxic shock syndrome, due to S. aureus | 2 | 1 | Trichinosis | 3 | 5 | Tuberculosis | 1 | 0 | Tularemia | 372 | 359 | The data on the health impacts of high air quality index for Beijing were relatively hard to retrieve. Getting specific and up to date standard information was also rather difficult. In Ghana for the subpopulations, I expect the rate of disease to be much lower than for those who spend most of the time exposed to outdoor PM. In order to control PM......

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Viruses and Antibiotics

...DNA, C-Cell/Cell Membrane, D- Nucleic Acid (DNA or RNA) b) Bacteriophage Life Cycle c) I believe it doesn’t matter what they infect, as they are non-living and as long as they find some kind of living host, they’ll inject their nucleic acid to replicate into many more viruses. 6. Antibiotics literally will have no effect and will not cure the patient. All that the patient will gain are the side effects, for example: drowsiness and such. They will not get cured, as their problem is that viruses aren’t alive and antibiotics only deal with live things. Part 2 http://www.storyjumper.com/book/index/10963732/rc21angus Works Cited Wikipedia contributors. "Rabies in Animals." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 19 June 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies_in_animals>. Wikipedia contributors. "Rabies." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 2 Jul 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies_in_animals>....

Words: 318 - Pages: 2

Veterinarian

...VETERINARIAN Veterinarian Job Description: Veterinarians or doctors of veterinary medicine diagnose, and treat diseases and injuries of pets, such as dogs and cats, and farm animals, such as cattle or sheep: The veterinarian examines the animal to determine nature of disease or injury and treats the animal surgically or medically. A veterinarian tests dairy herds, horses, sheep, and other animals for diseases and inoculates animals against rabies, brucellosis, and other disorders. They advise animal owners about sanitary measures, feeding, and general care to promote health of animals. Other aspects of the Veterinarian job description are research, teaching, or production of commercial products. Some Veterinarian's specialize in prevention and control of communicable animal diseases and can be designated Veterinarian, Public Health (medical service). Some Veterinarian's specialize in diagnosis and treatment of animal diseases, using roentgen rays and radioactive substances, and may be designated as a Veterinary Radiologist (medical service). Working Conditions Veterinarians in private or clinical practice often work long hours in a noisy indoor environment. Sometimes they have to deal with emotional or demanding pet owners. When working with animals that are frightened or in pain, veterinarians risk being bitten, kicked, or scratched. Veterinarians in large-animal practice spend time driving between their office and farms or ranches. They work outdoors in all kinds...

Words: 770 - Pages: 4

Research Paper

...years while others are still being studied with new ones occurring today in the modern world. Along with these diseases it is important to study and understand what causes them, what signs to look for, what species to look for them in, how to treat them, and how to prevent them from happening, IF you can even prevent them. Some diseases and conditions have vaccines to help with prevention and some do not, while some diseases are zoonotic meaning that they can be transmitted from animal to human. While there are hundreds upon hundreds of diseases to be looked at, the ten researched below are the ones once prevalent among the veterinary technicians job in the clinic; Hip Dysplasia and Ethylene Glycol poisoning in dogs, Hyperthyroidism and Rabies in cats, Strangles and Equine Recurrent Uveitits in Horses, Cryptosporidium and Fasciola Hepatica in Ruminants and Swine, Idiopathic Epilepsy in Aviaries, and Lymphoma in Ferrets. Hip Dysplasia in dogs is a congenial condition caused by a femur that does not fit correctly into the pelvic socket, or poorly developed muscles in the pelvic area. The causes of hip dysplasia are considered heritable, but new research conclusively suggests that environment also plays a role. Although to what degree is caused by genetics versus what portion is caused by environmental factors are a topic of debate. Environmental influences would include the canine being overweight, having an injury of the rear legs at a young age, overexertion on hip joint at...

Words: 17767 - Pages: 72

Gs1140 Unit 2 Research Paper 1

...Zombie Virus or Rabies-Flu Hybrid? Could a highly improbable genetic tweak cause a mutant virus? Hollywood would sure like us to believe it, or else they would lose at the box office. Though humans once dead can’t rise from the grave, it is possible that certain viruses can cause violent aggressive behavior, one such virus is Rabies, which could cause some zombie-like traits. Rabies is a viral disease and it causes the central nervous system to become afflicted with horrible symptoms, causing a human to act like a stark raving mad lunatic. Once infected, humans do not immediately show signs of the disease. Actually, the first signs of rabies, such as confusion, hallucinations, anxiety, and paralysis- could lay dormant in the body and not typically appear for a week up to a year. Once symptoms do appear, if left untreated, could be fatal within a week. Now take the influenza virus’ ability to spread rapidly through the air, and combine it with rabies. Could this combination possibly cause a zombie apocalypse? I think if this were to happen, gun sales would sky rocket. Can you picture it? The caption would read, “Now open, Zombie Season, how many can you get?” Rabies though is no laughing matter. Viruses can exchange pieces of genetic code, but they have to be related. It’s scientifically unheard of when two different viruses like rabies and influenza merge, because they are too different. Viruses don’t mix and match, they interchange only with their own gene family.......

Words: 440 - Pages: 2

Dunne and Raby: Functional Fictions

...David Lee History of Industrial Design Mara Holt Skov 10/29/13 DUNNE AND RABY Left: Fig 1 – Fiona Raby Right: Fig 2 – Anthony Dunne Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby are a design team based in London, England since 1994. Additionally they are both professors at the Royal College of Art in the Design Interaction Program. Their practice has focused on a type of design called Critical Design, coined by Dunne in their 2001 book, Hertzian Tales. The focus of their practice is to utilize design to create dialogue and debate within the design world and the public about the broader implications of emerging technologies. Most unusual is their method of not creating anything to be produced. Rather they illustrate their ideas through the creation of photographs, video and artifacts to effect change. Historically, Radical Architecture, particularly Superstudio and Archigram, are inspirations from which they draw their ideas and methods. Both Dunne and Raby were born and raised in England and trained as an industrial designer and as an architect respectively. After working in Japan for a time, they studied Computer Related Design at the RCA and became fellows at the CRD Studio. Within this program they began to explore the interactions between humans and computers. Throughout his education, the influence of architecture (Raby, his time at an architecture firm and his professors) helped Dunne realize that the role of the designer was more than just as a form......

Words: 1912 - Pages: 8

Animal Disease Research Paper

...    1 )  Rabies             Rabies is a viral disease causing inflammation of the brain ( encephalitis ). The virus is a member of the family Rhaboviridae. Worldwide, several variants of the virus have been identified, each associated with a single wild animal host that acts as a reservoir of infection for a particular geographic area.         Although all warm -blooded vertebrates are susceptible, only mammals are important in the spread of rabies. In British Columbia, bats are the only reservoir of rabies. Records of bats submitted for rabies testing suggest that relatively few are infected, even among those submitted because they are behaving abnormally. Bats are valuable components of the natural ecosystem and many species are at risk in British Columbia. Other potential hosts of British Columbia include domestic dogs/cats, foxes, raccoons, skunks, wolves and coyotes. " Spill over " of rabies to terrestial mammals from bats has occurred in British Columbia, but rabies has never been maintained in wild populations of terrestrial mammals.       Rabies should be suspected in any wild animal exhibiting any behavior considered " abnormal" including ; loss of fear or unusual friendliness, excitation or aggression, depression, incoordination, paralysis, convulsions or seizures, abnormal vocalizations, appearance of nocturnal creatures during the day, signs of choking or inability to drink or swallow food, drooling of saliva or frothing at the mouth. In Carnivores, evidence......

Words: 8420 - Pages: 34

Rabies

...1.0 INTRODUCTION Rabies is a virus disease that causes acute inflammation of the brain in humans and other warm-blooded animals. Early symptoms can include fever and tingling at the site of exposure. These symptoms are followed by one or more of the following symptoms: violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, fear of water, an inability to move parts of the body, confusion, and loss of consciousness. Once symptoms appear it nearly always results in death. The time period between contracting the disease and the start of symptoms is usually one to three months; however, this time period can vary from less than one week to more than one year. The time is dependent on the distance the virus must travel to reach the central nervous system. Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses including: rabies virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. Rabies is spread when an infected animal scratches or bites another animal or human. Saliva from an infected animal can also transmit rabies if the saliva comes into contact with the mouth, nose, or eyes. Overall dogs are the most common animal involved. More than 99% of rabies cases in countries where dogs commonly have the disease are caused by dog bites. In the Americas, bat bites are the most common source of rabies infections in humans, and less than 5% of cases are from dogs. Rodents are very rarely infected with rabies. The rabies virus travels to the brain by following the peripheral nerves. The disease can only be diagnosed after the start of...

Words: 3177 - Pages: 13

It Takes a Thief

...by infecting the bird and infects the snails again with the bird droppings. Ants also eating from the birds droppings end up with a nematode parasite that lays eggs in the ant, making them bright red and round. The ants end up looking like the berries birds like to eat, making it another cycle. Rabies is also a virus that can be transmitted from a bat or a dog to humans. There is another parasite, the Toxoplasma gondii, it lives by been in between felines and rodents. It changes the mouse behavior to become more daring, less afraid of the smell of a cat. “The chemical changes brought on by the parasite appear to have some of the same side effects on humans, who can be infected by ingesting parasite eggs from cat feces.”(Harmon) “Toxoplasma appears to manipulate human personality by the same adaptations that normally help it complete its life cycle” (Meader) A Zombie Apocalypse might be just a science fiction story to many, something that is just impossible to become a reality. “Even people may not be fully immune to such manipulation” (Harmon). Viruses have been known to jump from country to country in a matter of hours. Humans can also be manipulated from inside. You have rabies that makes humans and other animals get a lot of saliva, forming foam that spread the virus. (McKenna) Also, the above mentioned parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite has shown higher risky behavior, on those who are infected by it. There might be many more findings on viruses and......

Words: 1251 - Pages: 6

Programming Development Week 3

...Declare animalRace as String Declare rabiesVaccine as Boolean Declare felineLeukemiaVirusVaccine as Boolean Declare felineImmunodeficiencyVirusVaccine as Boolean Declare bordetellaVaccine as Boolean Declare leptospirosisVaccine as Boolean Declare lymeDiseaseVaccine as Boolean Diplay “Enter animal type” Input animalType Display “Enter animal race” Input animalRace Display “Enter animal name” Input animalName Case animalType Case: “Cat” Display “Does the cat have the rabies vaccine?” Input rabiesVaccine Display “Does the cat have the Feline Leukemia Virus vaccine?” Input felineLeukemiaVirusVaccine Display “Does the cat have the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus vaccine?” Input felineImmunodeficiencyVirusVaccine Break Case: “Dog” Display “Does the dog have the rabies vaccine?” Input rabiesVaccine Display “Does the dog have the Bordetella Vaccine?” Input bordetellaVaccine Display “Does the dog have the Leptospirosis Vaccine?” Input leptospirosisVaccine Display “Does the dog have the Lyme DiseaseVaccine?” Input lymeDiseaseVaccine Break Default: Display “No vaccines required for the input animal” End Case //New addition with an array for extra vaccines up to 10......

Words: 810 - Pages: 4

Cdc Requirement for Nigeria

...either inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) or oral polio vaccine (OPV). They should receive another dose of IPV before departure. For adults, available data do not indicate the need for more than a single lifetime booster dose with IPV. Yellow Fever Requirements: Required if traveling from a country with risk of YFV transmission and ≥1 year of age.a Recommendations: Recommended for all travelers ≥9 months of age. Vaccination should be given 10 days before travel and at 10-year intervals if there is on-going risk. Find an authorized U.S. yellow fever vaccination clinic. Meningococcal (meningitis) Recommended if you plan to visit countries that experience epidemics of meningococcal disease during December through June (see map). Rabies Recommended for travelers spending a lot of time outdoors, especially in rural areas, involved in activities such as bicycling, camping, or hiking. Also recommended for travelers with significant occupational risks (such as veterinarians), for long-term travelers and expatriates living in areas with a significant risk of exposure, and for travelers involved in any activities that might bring them into direct contact with bats, carnivores, and other mammals. Children are considered at higher risk because they tend to play with animals, may receive more severe bites, or may not report bites. Malaria Areas of Nigeria with Malaria: All(more information) If you will be visiting an area of Nigeria with malaria, you will need to......

Words: 3530 - Pages: 15

Hello

...___________________________________________ Animal experience other than pet ownership: ____________________________________________ ************************************************************************************************************ Please read the following information closely. It is intended to make your experience at the League safe and informed. 1. Animal Bites and/or Scratches I understand that I must immediately report all bites and/or scratches to the designated person in charge. 2. Rabies Many animals without proof of rabies vaccination will be received at the Suncoast Animal League. The risk of coming into contact with a rabid animal is extremely rare, however possible. Animals of age, which are placed for adoption, will have received their rabies vaccination. If I have any questions or concerns, I agree to speak to the Volunteer Coordinator or Executive Director prior to volunteering. I understand that pre-exposure rabies shots are available but not required. I also understand that the pre-exposure vaccine does not prevent rabies; it merely reduces the number of injections required after contact with a rabid animal. 3. Terms and Conditions of Volunteering a. I fully understand and agree to provide my services to the League without express or implied promise of salary, compensation, employment type benefits including but not limited to employment insurance programs, worker’s compensation accrual in any form, vacations or sick time. b. I fully understand......

Words: 1429 - Pages: 6

Fune wo Amu | Petalo Carmesi Flor Blanca - M.. | Download