Liquid Density

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Submitted By franfran
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Liquid Density

Frances Pauline U. Onting
Department of Chemistry
Xavier University-Ateneo de Cagayan
Corrales Avenue, Cagayan de Oro, Philippines

Abstract — Liquid density is the mass per unit volume, whereas specific gravity is the density relative to water. The present study was conducted to determine the liquid density of water and the unknown sample. The experiment also aimed to calculate the specific gravity given the densities. The first part of the experiment aimed to determine the density of the liquid by using the Westphal Balance. The average liquid densities of water and the unknown were 1.1433 and 0.9313 respectively. The relative density of the unknown was then calculated to be 0.8146, given the average densities. The second part utilized the hydrometer to determine the specific gravity directly. The specific gravity values of water and the unknown were 1.009 and 0.8157 respectively. The unknown compound was found to be butanol, with a specific gravity of 0.810. Based on the experimental results, the percentage error were 2.2324% for the Westphal balance and 2.5684% for the hydrometer.

Keywords- specific gravity, density, Westphal balance, hydrometer, unknown

Introduction

Density is a physical property unique to each substance. The density of a liquid is a measure of the mass of the substance in a standard unit of volume[1]. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume:
[pic] (1) where ρ is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume. Specific gravity, on the other hand, is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water at the same temperature[1]. Specific gravity can also be referred as the relative density. The Westphal balance, also known as the Mohr's balance, is an instrument used to measure the density of a liquid. It was first described by German chemist Carl…...

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