Kepler Spacecraft

In: Other Topics

Submitted By adamansky
Words 732
Pages 3
The Kepler Spacecraft

The never-ending pursuit of knowledge about our universe has allowed us to attempt to explore the configuration and variety of different planetary systems. This pursuit of knowledge has lead NASA to launch the Kepler Mission. This mission was specifically aimed to yield information on a certain portion of our galaxy (The Milky Way), which would allowed us to discover numerous Earth-like planets the possibly could be habitable. The Kepler spacecraft provides us with crucial information based on what is called the “Transit Method of Detecting Extrasolar Planets” ( This method along with the main instrument on Kepler, which is a photometer, provides us with a means of detecting Earth-like planets in far away areas of our galaxy. The Kepler Spacecraft utilizes the unique approach of the “Transit Method of Detecting Extrasolar Planets”. This method is actually quite an interesting idea and utilizes some interesting concepts. Firstly, the Kepler Spacecraft was designed with the purpose of detecting planets, however, it does this when the planets themselves pass in front of their stars and this event is called a “transit”. This passing over or covering causes a dip in the concentration of the stars’ light intensity; this is what the Kepler Spacecraft detects. Also, all of the “transits” that occur by the same planet must provide a highly repeatable signal, meaning this “transit” must be recurring to allow for the Kepler Spacecraft to detect it. How though is Kepler able to detect these changes of light intensity? The main aspect Kepler utilizes for this is a photometer. This photometer is able to detect and measure the changes in brightness of stars. The photometer itself has a very intricate structure; it consists of a telescope, a focal plane array and different local detector electronics. To really understand…...

Similar Documents

Stardust Spacecraft

...Stardust is the NASA spacecraft that took samples of the Wild 2 comet. This craft returned samples that showed sampled of glycine, an amino acid used to make proteins. The mission took place in January of 2004 and the data was sent back to Earth in January 2006. These results were the first to prove that there are life ingredients in space. This proof restarts the issue of whether our species was created by a meteor or comet that came to Earth and left these similar samples. It’s perfectly logical to think believe if this one comet had these particles that many more could too. That they could be remnants of other planets or celestial bodies even. Dr. Carl Pilcher, Director of the NASA Astrobiology Institute which co-funded the research said, “The discovery of glycine in a comet supports the idea that the fundamental building blocks of life are prevalent in space, and strengthens the argument that life in the universe may be common rather than rare.” This is simply a hint of possibilities for what could be out there. Through this two-year journey much was accomplished. These accomplishments give scientists and astronomers even more of a reason to look into space in search for many things from life to more life ingredients. If our science today can accomplish something like this then the limitations are endless for future scientists and what they can find. Professor Donald E. Brownlee said it best when he said, “The discovery of amino acids in the returned comet......

Words: 263 - Pages: 2

Gliese 581g

...It is a much more time consuming and difficult task (Ciampaglia, 2009). In a recent report for the National Academy of Science, astronomers declared the finding of such planets one of the major goals of this decade. NASA’s Kepler satellite — which was launched in March 2009 as a way to detect Earthlike bodies — is expected to harvest dozens or hundreds (Overbye, 2010). With being able to find Gliese 581g so easily, 10 to 20 percent of all stars may have possibility of having a planet that can maintain life. “There could be tens of billions of these systems in our galaxy” (Roach, 2010). “Stakes in the search for extrasolar planets have risen even higher with the recent launch of the European Space Agency's planet-hunting spacecraft, COROT, which will use the transit technique to monitor thousands of stars simultaneously. Over the course of its two-and-a-half year mission, it is expected to find up to 40 new rocky worlds, along with tens of new gas giants. The NASA Kepler mission, scheduled to launch next year, is even more ambitious. The spacecraft would be the first capable of detecting Earth-sized planets in our galaxy. NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder mission is currently on the backburner indefinitely, but it would have the same capability as Kepler. If launched, the satellites will mark an important step in the quest to answer one of humanity's oldest questions: Are we alone in the universe?” (Than, 2007). With all the possibilities on life in the universe, we......

Words: 3267 - Pages: 14

Johannes Kepler|Summary

...Context Johannes Kepler was born in the midst of an exciting and confusing time for Europe. The continent was entering the Renaissance, a reawakening of thought across the continent. By the time of Kepler's birth, the Renaissance had reinvigorated European culture, politics, philosophy, religion, literature, and science. The authority of the Catholic Church was challenged for the first time in centuries by the reformer Martin Luther, who pointed out the wrongs that he felt the Church had committed. Luther's rebellion spurred the Protestant Reformation, in which Luther and his followers freed themselves from the authority of the Church, creating a new sect of Christianity. Kepler, a Protestant, often found himself caught in the midst of the resulting tension between Catholicism and Protestantism. Catholics frequently persecuted him. A similar challenge of scientific authority was also in progress, a radical shift in thought that later became known as the Scientific Revolution. Scientists in all fields were beginning to question the wisdom of the ancient philosophers who had molded their disciplines. They gradually began rely on objective facts and observation and to turn away from the mysticism, religion, and unfounded theorizing that had previously dominated the field. This drastic change in scientific practices and beliefs was most apparent in the field of astronomy. Physics and astronomy had been dominated by the work of Aristotle, a philosopher from the time of......

Words: 13704 - Pages: 55

Keplers Lov

...Keplers lov Hvad går hver af lovende ud på? Den første går ud på at liget meget hvor planeten befinder sig i Ekliptika, så påvirker det ikke størrelsen på den. Den indeholder storeaksen, halvdelen af den hedder a, og er det hele aksen man snakker om hedder den a2. Der er derfor også en lille akse, halvdelen af den hedder b og hele aksen er a2. Den anden går ud på hastigheds bestemmelse. inden for to tidsrum, vil linjen mellem solens og en planets centrummer altid passere et konstant Arial. Den tredje går ud på omløbstiden af ekliptika, hvor hurtig den langsomme bane og den hurtige bane er. Hvis en planet med omløbstiden t følger en ellipseformet bane, hvis halve storakse er a, så vil t^2 være ligefremt proportional med a^3. T= omløbstid a=halve storakser T^2/a^3=konstant Hvad betyder Keplers anden lov for planetens hastighed i perihelium og apohelium? Det betyder at Perihelium er det tidspunkt planeten er tættest på solen, og det virker derfor som om at det går hurtigere. Apohelium betyder at planeterne er lang væk fra solen, og virker derfor som om at det går langsommere. Lige meget om planeterne er i perihelium eller apohelium, så går det en måned.’ Hvad siger den tredje lov om forholdet mellem omløbstiden og den halve storakse?......

Words: 304 - Pages: 2

7.08 History Test

...Incorrect Mark 0 out of 2 [OSS.03] During a solar flare, it is most likely that (2 points) Select one: a. severe hurricanes would occur b. electrical power will be generated on Earth c. satellites will send information to Earth rapidly d. the aurora borealis will be seen in the night sky Question 30 Incorrect Mark 0 out of 2 [OSS.01] Which of these models of the solar system first proved that the sun is at one of the foci of Earth's elliptical orbit? (2 points) Select one: a. Brahe model b. Kepler model c. Ptolemic model d. Copernicus model Question 31 Correct Mark 2 out of 2 [OSS.02] The diagram below shows four objects in the solar system which have equal masses. Which of these pairs of objects exerts the least gravitational force on each other? (2 points) Select one: a. Object 1 and Object 3 b. Object 4 and Object 3 c. Object 1 and Object 2 d. Object 4 and Object 2 Question 32 Incorrect Mark 0 out of 2 [OSS.02] When a spacecraft travels towards Earth, the gravitational force acting on it (2 points) Select one: a. increases b. decreases c. increases first and then decreases d. decreases first and then increases Question 33 Correct Mark 2 out of 2 [OSS.02] Earth's magnetic field is created by the (2 points) Select one: a. bar magnets b. reaction forces c. gravitational forces d. flow of electric charges Question 34 Correct Mark 2 out of 2 [OSS.02] Which of these statements best describes the......

Words: 2308 - Pages: 10

Life on Kepler

...Life on Another Planet KEPLER-22b Created by: Clinton Wall Larry Boggs Sheila Campbell Kepler system is made up of many planets: approximately 69 of them. Many have the same structure as the Earth, such as, it has the capability to hold water like an ocean, and has an atmosphere some-what like the Earth. Kepler-22b is a planet roughly 600 light years away from earth and is approximately 2.4 earth’s size. It takes on the same similarities as the earth. It shows that is has clouds which offers us the distinction that is has an atmosphere with the capability of having oxygen to breath without the need of special equipment. Which could save us tremendous amounts of money to be able to use on other things. Just imagine being able to live on a planet other than earth without special equipment needed to sustain life; just being able to go outside, breathe clean air and enjoy life on the nicely landscaped and wonderful temperatures of Kepler-22b. The surface temperature of Kepler-22b is approximately 22C (72F) which would be comfortable for sustaining life on its planet. With its land mass and the capability to hold water, this would be a well-designed planet to live on. With the earth’s ozone layer slowly dissipating, the future of viable life here could be in......

Words: 680 - Pages: 3

Living on Another Planet

...was the creation of a pronounced history of distinctive scientific and technological triumphs in human space flight, aeronautics, space science, and space applications. NASA had originally believed itself to be the leader in space technology and missile development however when the Soviet Union satellite Sputnik 1 was successfully launched into space while the first two US launches had failed they were proved to be wrong. This led to the Sputnik crisis. Immediately the space race began and NASA quickly employed possibilities for human space flight. Project Mercury was NASA’s first prestigious program, which was exploring whether or not humans could survive in space. With Project Mercury’s success Project Gemini was to follow, with a spacecraft built for two astronauts. With Project Apollo in 1969, Apollo 11 was launched and NASA put the first astronauts on the moon. Several test projects were to follow in the early 70’s. The Space Shuttle program was born in 1981 and it still continues today to assist with the building of the International Space Station. In addition to their heroic achievements NASA’s humanitarian efforts are unmatched. This year NASA will begin to provide educational camps for underprivileged middle school children. With its launch of, Summer of Innovations (SOI) in response to President Obama’s Educate to Innovate National Campaign. The program’s goal is to keep students from losing skills learned during the previous school year. By incorporating the......

Words: 1567 - Pages: 7

New Planet

...forms inhabiting these areas, this information excites astronomers due to the chance that the super-Earths could be fit for the habitation of life in contrast to the gas giants. The search for these Earth-like planets continues to be one of the most sought after missions in the world with new findings every-day in the making, as stated by Keck Observatory, scientists from the Universities of California, Berkeley and Hawaii have come together and mathematically came to the conclusion that 20% of the Sun-like stars in our galaxy have Earth-sized planets that could in fact contain life (Keck Observatory, 2013). The article goes on to state that upon coming to this assumption from the studies done from NASA’s Kepler spacecraft mission that discovered the first exoplanet (Kepler-22) along with the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is the largest optical and infrared telescopes in the world, scientists are able to get that much closer to learning even more about these Sun-like stars (Keck Observatory, 2013). Upon learning about this pertinent information this reveals that every-fifth star has a planet somewhat like Earth, Mr. Howard who is an astronomer at the University of Hawaii states that they now have to build equipment i.e. space crafts, telescopes etc. that are governed by how close the nearest Earth-sized planets are in order to take a picture of the planet itself (Keck Observatory, 2013). If I were a scientist or astronomer and I had the pleasure of discovering a new......

Words: 888 - Pages: 4

Nasa’s Balance Mass Challenge: Using “Dead Weight” on Mars Spacecraft to Advance Science and Technology

...CLOUDS AND WEATHER Clouds * A cloud is visible aggregate of small water droplets and/or ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere and can exist in a different of shapes and sizes. The droplets are so small and light that they can float in the air. * Some clouds are accompanied by precipitation in the form of rain, snow, hail, sleet, and even freezing rain. BASIC FORMS OF CLOUDS Clouds are classified based on their appearance and height 1. Cirrus – characterized by high, white, thin and wispy fibers similar to a feathery appearance. 2. Cumulus – consists of globular individual cloud masses. It is similar to a cauliflower structure. 3. Stratus – best describes as sheets or layer covering much or all the sky. LEVELS OF CLOUDS 1. High Clouds – this above 6000 meters a) Cirrus -> thin and delicate and appear as book filaments sometimes called “mares tales.” b) Cirrocumulus-> consist of fluffy matters. c) Cirrostratus -> appear as flat layer. 2. Middle Clouds – have a prefix also part of their name ranging from 2000-6000 meters. a) Altocumulus-> composed of globular masses compared to cirrocumulus which are larger and denser. b) Altostratus-> produce a uniform white to grayish sheet covering the sky with the sum or moon visible as a bright spot. 3. Low Clouds – have a prefix alto part of their name ranging from 2000-6000 meters. a) Stratus-> are uniform fog like layer of clouds that commonly covers much of the sky. ...

Words: 577 - Pages: 3

Earth Perspectives

...discovery was based on the most accurate statistical analysis yet of all the observations from the Kepler telescope, a space observatory launched in 2009 specifically designed to locate planets around other stars. Temperatures must be "just right" for life to develop, astronomers say. The research was based mainly on an exhaustive, three-year search of Kepler data undertaken by Erik Petigura, a graduate student at the University of California, Berkeley. "Now, for the first time, humanity has a measure of how common Earth-size planets are around sun-like stars," Marcy added. Howard says the new estimate of planets means there are 40 billion chances "for life to get started and to evolve." "The findings are robust, but you have to read the fine print to understand that the numbers are somewhat uncertain," noted MIT astronomer Sara Seager, who was not part of the study. "Overall the result speaks to the growing findings that small planets are everywhere." "For the past couple of years there has been an emerging consensus that Earth-size planets are common, so in that sense, the result is not hugely surprising," said astronomer David Kipping of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, who was also not part of the study. "What is special about this work is the huge effort of the authors to develop a completely independent way of measuring this occurrence rate to that of the Kepler team." And going beyond our galaxy, Marcy reminds us that the Milky Way is just a......

Words: 3800 - Pages: 16


...understanding that the Earth being the center of the universe began to change as scientists (Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler) researched, used mathematics and physics. The findings of there work led to the belief that the Sun was the center of the Universe (Heliocentric model). Copernicus used mathematics (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) to form the Heliocentric model of the universe. Galileo used physics (Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems) to support Copernicus’ Heliocentric theory. Kepler mathematics (laws of planetary motion) and his expertise in optics (inventing an improved version of the refracting telescope (Keplerian Telescope) and gave credit to Galileo for his telescopic discoveries) to support the Heliocentric model. The Heliocentric model was accepted as the structure of the Solar System because of the work of these ancient scientists and the work of those that came after them. In the mid-to-late 20th century supremacy in space exploration between the Soviet Union and United States began. This is now known as the “Space Race”. During this tense time known as the “Cold War” both the Soviet Union and the United States felt that being first in space exploration was necessary for national security and a symbol of their superiority. The Space Race let to the launching of artificial satellites and the race to put a manned spacecraft on the moon. On July 20, 1969 the United States landed the first humans on the moon. This accomplishment......

Words: 439 - Pages: 2

Masa de Los Planetas Y Las Leyes de Kepler

...Santa María de Montesclaros Adriana Marisol Ligorría Duque Física Fundamental Mariela Juárez Los planetas y las leyes de Kepler LOS PLANETAS DEL SISTEMA SOLAR Planeta | Masa (kg) | Diámetro (km) | Gravedad (m/s) | Mercurio | 3.3x10 23| 4870| 3.72 | Venus | 4.87x1024 | 12100 | 8.82 | Tierra | 5.98x1024 | 12756 | 9.8 | Marte | 6.4x1023 | 6670 | 3.72 | Júpiter | 1.9x1027 | 143760| 23.13 | Saturno | 5.68x1026 | 120420| 9.01 | Urano | 8.7x1025 | 51300 | 8.72 | Neptuno| 1x1022 | 40500 | 10.97 | LAS LEYES DE KEPLER Las leyes de Kepler fueron enunciadas por Johannes Kepler para describir matemáticamente el movimiento de los planetas en sus órbitas alrededor del Sol. Aunque él no las describió así, en la actualidad se enuncian como sigue: Primera ley (1609): Todos los planetas se desplazan alrededor del Sol describiendo órbitas elípticas. El Sol se encuentra en uno de los focos de la elipse. Segunda ley (1609): el radio vector que une un planeta y el Sol barre áreas iguales en tiempos iguales. La ley de las áreas es equivalente a la constancia del momento angular, es decir, cuando el planeta está más alejado del Sol (afelio) su velocidad es menor que cuando está más cercano al Sol (perihelio). En el afelio y en el perihelio, el momento angular  es el producto de la masa del planeta, su velocidad y su distancia al centro del Sol. Tercera ley (1618): para cualquier planeta, el cuadrado de su período orbital es directamente proporcional al cubo de...

Words: 311 - Pages: 2

Life in the Universe

...compounds were found near ALH84001 meteorite sample and the bacteria fossils that it contained. The rock landed on Earth a long time ago, so the survived bacteria could have reproduced and may have been the reason to why the fossils found on the rock resemble bacteria from Earth. If life came to procreate on Earth, then originally there must have been life on Mars. In addition to Mars, Europa is another celestial body that provides support for life. Europa is the sixth largest moon in the solar system and is capable of aiding alien life. This moon, that orbits planet Jupiter, is smaller than the Earth’s. Carbon, energy, and water in liquid form are some general prerequisites of life anywhere in the universe. In 1995, NASA’s Galileo Spacecraft showed the evidence of liquid ocean under Europa’s icy outer shell (Nardo 28). There is more water on Europa than there is on Earth. The immense availability of water in liquid form advocates the existence of alien life. Also, there is a lot of geothermal heat that radiates from Europa’s warm core. The geothermal vents are energy sources with the ability to support life as they ooze out hydrogen sulfide, which provides energy to drive metabolic processes in bacteria ( There are geothermal vents on Earth at the bottom of the planet’s oceans where single celled Lithoautotrophic microbes live (Nardo 28). If there is proof of these organisms existing on Earth, surely ones similar to these must exist in Europa; after all, Europa......

Words: 2465 - Pages: 10

Will Human Life on Earth Come to an End?

...Will Human Life on Earth Come to an End? In 1993 science‐fiction writer Kim Stanley Robinson published Red Mars, the first of his  Mars trilogy. Red  Mars is  set  in the  year 2026. At  the  beginning of the novel, the spacecraft  Ares departs. Aboard the Ares, the space colonists are bound for Mars.  The  voyage  to  Mars  is  portentous.  On  Earth,  corporations  are  coming  to  dominate  global  governance.  Nation  states  still  fly  their  flags,  but  they  owe  their  allegiance  to  the  transnational corporations. The “trans‐nats,” as the transnational corporations are called, are  the  real  agents  of  the  global  economy.  They  have  the  power  and  ability  to  extract  natural  resources  from  the  earth.  The  increasing  competition  among  trans‐nats  and  growing  human  population means more and more resources are being removed. This situation threatens the  feasibility of life on the planet.   Robinson played out this idea over the course of three books. By the end of Red Mars, a  world war has erupted on Earth. The second book in the trilogy, Green Mars, documents the  terraforming  of  the  red  planet.  (Terraforming  is  a  science‐fiction  term  for  adapting  another  planet  or  moon  into  a  planet  that  can  sustain  life  in  the  same  way  Earth  can.  This  process  involves creating an appropriate biosphere, atmosphere, and surface topography on the new  celestial  body.)  The  third  book  in  the  trilogy,  Blue ...

Words: 1577 - Pages: 7


...exoplanet." The team used Chandra to observe six transits and data from XMM Newton observations of one. The planet, known as HD 189733b, is a hot Jupiter, meaning it is similar in size to Jupiter in our solar system but in very close orbit around its star. HD 189733b is more than 30 times closer to its star than Earth is to the sun. It orbits the star once every 2.2 days. HD 189733b is the closest hot Jupiter to Earth, which makes it a prime target for astronomers who want to learn more about this type of exoplanet and the atmosphere around it. They have used NASA's Kepler space telescope to study it at optical wavelengths, and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to confirm it is blue in color as a result of the preferential scattering of blue light by silicate particles in its atmosphere. The study with Chandra and XMM Newton has revealed clues to the size of the planet's atmosphere. The spacecraft saw light decreasing during the transits. The decrease in X-ray light was three times greater than the corresponding decrease in optical light. "The X-ray data suggest there are extended layers of the planet's atmosphere that are transparent to optical light but opaque to X-rays," said co-author Jurgen Schmitt of Hamburger Sternwarte in Hamburg, Germany. "However, we need more data to confirm this idea." The researchers also are learning about how the planet and the star can affect one another. Astronomers have known for about a decade ultraviolet and X-ray......

Words: 627 - Pages: 3

Tierische Evolution (3) | Chiao Chiao | Ep.10 Mama Fairy and the Woodcutter 1×9