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4: In the next phase of the project constructing the dam itself should HG employ someone whose main function is that of liaison between its corporate culture and the culture of its host country? If so, is Martin the right person for the job?
Answer: Given the importance and the size of the project, as well as the many pitfalls that will surely be encountered along the way, it seems only logical to employ someone who is extremely well versed in the culture of Uganda to serve as a liaison with HG’s headquarters. Whether that person is Martin or someone else, however, HG must establish clear guidelines that reflect both U.S. law and corporate policy to guide the managers of their foreign operations.

4.IN HG’s NEXT PHASE, THE DAM CONSTRUCTION, SHOULD IT EMPLOY SOMEONE WHOSE MAIN FUNCTION IS TO BE A LIAISON BETWEEN HG’s CORPORATE CULTURE AND THE CULTURE OF UGANDA? IF SO, SHOULDMARTIN BE THE PERSON FOR THE JOB?
The assignment taken up by Hydro Generations to construct a power plant in Uganda can be viewed in different phases. The first and initial phase can be listed as establishing an operating structure so that future work activities could be carried out smoothly and uninterrupted. The second phase consists of the construction of the dam. The final phase even though not mentioned in the case study could be assumed to be as the final construction of the power plant. Charles Martin’s initial assignment mainly dealt in the pre constructional phase where his duties were three pronged. 1. Working with Ugandan government authorities in the capital, Kampala, and withvillagers in the area where the dam was to be built to gain support and necessary permissions for the construction. 2. Establishing an office and hiring people for that office who would be responsible for local purchases, clearance of incoming goods through customs, immigration permissions for foreigners coming in to work on the project, logistics of materials going from the air port in Kampala to the dam site and keeping records of supplies and expenditures. 3. Helping foreign visitors become accommodated and oriented when visiting Uganda. According to the above facts and analyzing his performances it could be stated that Charles Martin was a great success for HG’s corporation, mainly because his work was quite satisfactory and also because he was able to achieve every task on time and within the given budget.
As far as the HG Corporation was concerned Martin was the man for the job, since he showed high levels of interest in working in African countries and also his area of study revolving around the African culture made him the ideal person for the job. HG saw the importance of having someone with both a home country corporate perspective and knowledge of Uganda, because of Uganda’s economic, political and cultural complexity.
Therefore the choice made in recruiting Martin for the initial phase of the project was a success, but would it be the right choice for the next phase which would be the construction of the dam? This is one question HG corporation is going to find extremely difficult to answer. Even though Martin’s business operations were a success during the initial stage many actions taken remained questionable. For instance James Green the vice president of HG showed great concern in Martin’s lifestyle in Uganda, some of his business practices and his participation in tribal rituals as well. HG also pondered over the option of finding a suitable replacement for Charles Martin. They knew that Martin was young in age, aged only 29 and was enthusiastic in working in Uganda and also been deployed for the past one and a half years, thus making him accustomed to the local way of living, their rules and regulations, their traditional rituals and beliefs and most important of all their business procedures. Replacing such a person with such expertise and experience would be no easy task and if they did find a suitable replacement his ability to achieve success would still remain a question mark. The only relevant reason HG needs to consider if they are to hire a suitable replacement for Martinis only based on the complexity of the second phase the construction of the dam. The case study clearly states that Martin was first assigned for the preconstruction phase of the Ugandan project. This stage required more management skills such as controlling, organizing and planning organizational procedures. Martin’s main area of work was to establish a sound platform in Uganda, so that future activities would run smoothly.

When considering the second phase Martin’s expertise is questionable. The second phase being the construction of the dam would mean that more expertise involving construction based knowledge would be required. It would mean that more technically sound professionals such as engineers would be required in great numbers. Therefore what Martin could offer in terms of such requirements would be left unanswered. This is one important area in which HG has to weigh the pros and cons in deciding whether a replacement is required or whether Martin should be allowed to continue. If HG does decide to assign Martin for the second phase of the Ugandan project the following measures should be taken, in order to achieve further success. They should advise Martin on as to what action needs to be taken when conducting business operations in Uganda. He should be given a clear understanding regarding the importance of the HG’s organizational culture and also of its long term existence. Therefore HG should advise Martin about taking calculated risks so that HG’s corporate image is not tarnished or exposed to risk. If HG is able to convince Martin to carry out business procedures in a more ethical manner it has to be stated that Martin is the most suitable person for the second phase of the Ugandan project as well. His earlier experience in working in Uganda’s cultural background would no doubt assist and play a major role in achieving HG’s overall objective of constructing the power plant in Uganda

CASE LINKS http://www.scribd.com/doc/77826266/Uganda-Case-Study CLOSING CASE: Global Software Piracy [See Tables 3.4, 3.5, and 3.6.]

Software technology is plagued by the problem of digital piracy—the illegal copying and/or distribution of software for personal or business use. An explosive issue, it increasingly cuts to the perception, protection, and enforcement of intellectual property rights. Presently software piracy ranges from a single individual’s making an unauthorized copy of a software product for use, sale, or free distribution to a company’s mismanagement of its software license. Principal types of piracy include: end-user piracy, pre-installed software, Internet piracy, counterfeiting, and online auction piracy. Countries where piracy rates were the highest in 2004 include China (92%), Vietnam (92%), Ukraine (91%), Indonesia (88%), and Russia (87%). Countries where piracy rates were the lowest in 2004 include the United States (22%), New Zealand (23%), Denmark (26%), Austria (27%), and Sweden (27%). The pervasiveness and tenacity of software piracy in the face of an ever-expanding set of intellectual property rights laws, policies, and treaties raises profound questions for the software industry in particular and intellectual property rights in general.

Questions

1. What is the relationship among the various governments, institutions, organizations, and companies in developing legal codes to combat software piracy? Technically, the standards of software piracy are unequivocal. Thus, parties have been hopeful that collective political arrangements and legal actions by companies, associations, governments, and institutions would lead to a decline in global software piracy. However, coordinated anti-piracy initiatives such as high-profile legal proceedings against companies using illegal software, increased government cooperation in providing legal protection for intellectual property, and the criminalization of software piracy have proven to be largely ineffective. Even efforts at the transnational level to get nations to sign treaties and to require them to protect and enforce intellectual property rights according to global, not local, standards have not yielded the desired results. Unfortunately, the ease with which software can be duplicated, sold, and distributed continues to baffle the industry.

2. In your opinion, should software companies, industry associations, home governments, or transnational institutions take the lead in aggressively negotiating with the governments of countries with high piracy rates? Why?
Because of the enormous economic, technological, and political implications of the problem, software companies, industry associations, home governments, and transnational institutions should all take lead roles in negotiating with the governments of countries with high piracy rates. Each of those parties has related but slightly different arguments to put forth, and it is very important to make the point that all of the parties are highly vested in the issue—therefore, they should all step forward. Further, different parties will have stronger or weaker relationships with the governments of high piracy nations. Those parties who have the most to offer those governments will be in a position to make their arguments most persuasively. Thus, efforts of all the stakeholders in the issue should be thoughtfully coordinated.

3. Can the software industry expect to contain and control software piracy without eventually relying on governments to take a more active role? Why would the software industry dislike greater government regulation?
If the software industry could successfully develop technical and business measures to thwart counterfeiters, government intervention would be unnecessary. Thus far, the industry’s best efforts have been unsuccessful. Given the value of the products involved, the “global” appeal of pirated software and the relative ease with which counterfeiting occurs on a worldwide basis, the temptation for counterfeiters to continue their activities is irresistible. In spite of the need for assistance and cooperation from all stakeholders, the software industry could presumably object to greater government regulation; while innovation moves at lightning speed, regulation tends to lag well behind technological developments and market realities. 4. In your opinion, what rationale do you think consumers in high theft countries (see Table 3.6) use to justify software piracy? Similarly, what ideas or conditions lead consumers in lower theft countries to respect IPRs? Consumers in high theft countries tend to share a collectivist mindset; they see property as being common to all and existing for the benefit of all—often they do not understand the basic concept of intellectual property rights. As with many other products, they want to acquire them at the lowest possible cost. On the other hand, consumers in lower theft countries tend to share an individualist mindset; the concept of intellectual property rights is well understood and long established within their countries and cultures. IPRs are seen to be a necessity for economic development and growth; royalties and profits are seen as the just fruits of creativity and investment.

5. What sorts of political or legal solutions should the software industry lobby governments to apply to the piracy problem? First, the software industry needs to convince governments the world over of the need for consistent, tough legislation to protect intellectual property rights. Governments must also be willing to pursue and prosecute violators. To be successful in these efforts, it may be necessary for software producers in North America, Europe, and Japan to convince their governments to pressure the governments in high theft countries to adopt and enforce appropriate legislation. Second, the software industry should continue to lobby transnational institutions such as the World Intellectual Property Association and the World Trade Organization to help establish standards and police piracy.

Barbie: The American Girl Goes Global
Q1. Describe Mattel’s global marketing strategy for Barbie and assess its success. Does management demonstrate that it understands and embraces the need to “think global and act local”?

In each country, management was attempting to create a doll that would be based an aesthetic standards of the new country’s market. Even though the attempts to adjust a product to other cultures were done in every country outside the United States, the usual American prototype was still the most successful. Mattel tried to adjust to the principle “Think globally and act local” but the product was more successful in its original “home grown” look.

Q2. Approximately 90 percent of the world’s children live in developing countries. Despite recent negative sales trends, Barbie remains the most popular toy in the world. What must Mattel do to capitalize on the strategic strength of the Barbie brand and take advantage of market opportunities around the globe?

The decline in sales of Barbie was caused, in part, by the newly developed Bratz line. Before Bratz were created, Barbie was considered the fashion doll and a symbol of the American lifestyle and prosperity. Barbie stays the most popular toy, but to take advantage of market opportunities, the doll (her clothes and accessories) should be modernized (new fashion American trends) to compete with Bratz.

Q3. How important is culture in dictating children’s toy preferences? Will cultural differences result in failure for Mattel as the company faces new competitors in the Middle East?

Culture is important in dictating children’s toy preferences. In Barbie’s case, local culture seems to play less of a role as, in most countries, children prefer American Barbie to the culturally adjusted one. The Middle East is probably the one region where American Barbie may have a problem connected to cultural standards. Parents in Middle Eastern countries may refuse to buy toys which make their daughters think that it is appropriate to be independent and open-minded. The competitors of Barbie, especially that Fulla doll, would be more culturally accepted and therefore more in demand.

Q4. Industry observers often refer to Barbie as an “icon.” What does this mean? What should Mattel executives do to turn around sales of Barbie in the United States?

Barbie is an “icon” of the American lifestyle, with her Cadillac, house with a pool, and boyfriend Ken. The doll is associated with the “ideal” adult life that children want to reach to have freedom from their parents. At the same time, the United States is a country of many nationalities and the U.S. market should be responsive to the needs of its cultural mix. In addition to creating African-American, Asian American, and Hispanic dolls, current cultural trends should be incorporated. Innovations in technology (such as the iPhone, iPod, etc.) could be reflected as accessories for Barbie.

America’s Cuban Conundrum

1. What was the key issue that prompted the EU to take the Helms-Burton dispute to the WTO?

Although a "blocking statute" was permitted under Article 235 of the European Union, Denmark threaten to veto stated that it exceeded the European Commission's authority. After President Clinton signed the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act, the World Trade Organization agreed to a request by the European Union to assemble a three-person trade panel that would determine if Helms-Burton violated any international trade laws.

2. Who benefits the most from an embargo of this type? Who Suffers?

This embargo immediately benefits the U.S. companies and citizens whose property seized by the Cuba government. It hurts the country that is being sanctioned because it limits the trade market. The Helms-Burton Act also restricts new job openings from foreign companies and investors. These jobs could be vital to improving the poor way of life the Cubans are used to living under the socialist government.

3. Assess attempts by some U.S. policymakers to limit or end enforcement of the embargo rather than the embargo itself. Do you agree with this approach?

Former United States Secretaries of States called upon the president to create a National Bipartisan Commission on Cuba to review the policy. This allowed Cubans to buy unlimited amounts of food and medicine from the U.S. This represented a victory for the United States. However, in 2002, Castro began to restrict the growing democratic movement by jailing activist. President Bush responded by eliminating cultural travel exchanges.…...

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