Head Loss in Pipe System

In: Science

Submitted By akemasyraf
Words 1757
Pages 8
The main principle behind this experiment is the head loss experienced by a moving fluid in a piping system. Head loss is the pressure drop (due to friction) of a flowing fluid. The friction may be caused by many factors, such as friction from the introduction of pipe fittings or friction of the fluid against the pipes inner walls. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether the head loss of fluid in piping of different diameter (d = 0.006m, 0.010m and 0.017m) was obtainable by using the Darcy-Weisbach Equation; h=(4fLu^2)/2gd; OR h=(λLu^2)/2gd. Furthermore, if the head loss was obtainable through the Darcy-Weisbach Equation, we have to compare it with the experimental head loss value and find the percentage error to determine the accuracy of the Darcy-Weisbach Equation. Form the experiment, the test 1 (d =0.006m), the maximum percentage error was 76.8% and the minimum was 72.2%.For test 2 (d =0.010m), the maximum percentage error was 15.6% and the minimum was 4.4%. Lastly for the test 3 (d =0.017m), the maximum was percentage error was 12.9% and the minimum was 4.5%.
Thus, from the obtained results, it can be said that the head loss value of a fluid flowing through a pipe can be calculated by using the Darcy-Weisbach Equation, and its value is fairly accurate. Objectives
The objective of this experiment is to determine whether the Darcy-Weisbach is applicable in obtaining the amount of head loss (due to friction) experienced by a fluid (water) flowing through a smooth pipe. Furthermore, we are to determine the accuracy of the theoretical value of the head loss calculated using the Darcy-Weisbach (if any) by obtaining it’s percentage of error with regards to the experimental value of the head loss.

Data, Observations and Results
Table 1: Pipe of Diameter 0.006m

To convert Flowrate,Q: Q=(Q×(〖10〗^(-3)))/T (m³/s)…...

Similar Documents


...Having examined the various models of grief and loss, it became evident that many look at it in the context of loss to death. The loss of a person through death is momentous to us as the most recognised source of grief but it is not the only source. “Loss as majestic as death or as mundane as taxes, is the sure thing in every life, the experience that is as common as April rain in almost everyday in some form or other, in our lives.” (Kennedy, E. & Charles, S.,C. 2001.pg372). After conducting my research, I realise that people grieve to secondary losses as well as primary losses. Grief can result from any loss: end of a relationship, leaving home to go to university or a family member with some sort of illness. In addition, one may experience grief as the result of the loss of something as well as someone. Taking all this into account, I decided to focus on Colin Murray Parkes. Parkes (1988) brought together psychological and social aspects of grief which is termed psychosocial transitions. Throughout this essay I will examine Parke's model and explain how this particular model can be applied to my own personal life. I will also demonstrate how this model can be applied to the social care field. My loss was losing my grandmother to Alzheimer's disease. It is not that she has physically died, but her identity and true self was gone. She was warm, loving and one of the most caring people I have ever met. I stayed with my grandmother every night since I was seven years of......

Words: 1037 - Pages: 5


...Pipe Bends and Thrust Block Forces ------------------------------------------------- Pipe bends and thrust blocks forces on anchors due to fluid velocity and internal pressure - online resulting force calculator Sponsored Links Online Pipe Bend Resulting Force Calculator The calculator below can used to calculate resulting force in piping bends: ------------------------------------------------- Top of FormMetricρ - density of fluid (kg/m3)d - int. diam. pipe or bend (m)v - velocity of fluid (m/s)β - turning angle of bend (o)p - gauge pressure (kPa)Bottom of Form | ------------------------------------------------- Top of FormImperial SG - specific gravity of fluid d - int. diam. pipe or bend (inches)v - velocity of fluid (ft/s)β - turning angle of bend (o)p - gauge pressure (psi)Bottom of Form | The resulting force on a thrust block or anchor depends on the fluid mass flow and flow velocity and the pressure in the bend. Resulting force due to Mass flow and Flow Velocity The resulting force in x-direction due to mass flow and flow velocity can be expressed as: Rx = m v (1 - cosβ)         (1)     = ρ A v2 (1 - cosβ)         (1b)     = ρ π (d / 2)2 v2 (1 - cosβ)         (1c) where Rx = resulting force in x-direction (N) m = mass flow (kg/s) v = flow velocity (m/s) β = turning bend angle (degrees) ρ = fluid density (kg/m3) d = internal pipe or bend diameter (m) π = 3.14... The resulting force in y-direction due to mass flow and flow velocity can be......

Words: 632 - Pages: 3

Losses in Pipes Fittings

...in Pipes and Fittings Objectives: i. The objectives of this experiment were to firstly, measure the experimental head loss which was due to the friction which occurred in a straight pipe and compare the value with that of which was obtained using a Moody chart. Then to demonstrate that head loss gradient and flow-rate squared are proportional to each other. Summary of Theory: Fluid flows can be described in two ways. These are “laminar” or “turbulent”. Laminar (streamline) flow happens when the fluid particles follow parallel flow paths and usually has low velocity values. On the other hand, turbulent flows are when the particles have irregular, secondary motions in conjunction with the direction of the flow. This causes a mixing of the fluids. A dimensionless constant is used to measure these types of flows, which is called Reynolds Number, and can be found by the equation :Re= vdυ V = Velocity of the flow of fluid D = Diameter of the pipe υ = Kinematic viscosity of water Depending on the size of the number, the resulting Reynolds (Re) number will relate to the type of flow/fluid motion, a Re number of 2000 will result in a laminar flow. Whereas, a Re number of more than 4000 will result in a turbulent flow. Frictional losses must also be taken into account with regards to the relative roughness of the pipe used: k = Pipe roughness d = Diameter of pipe k/d = 0.0015mm / 10.31mm = 0.000145 Equipment Used: Cussons Hydraulic Bench Stopwatch Head......

Words: 915 - Pages: 4


...Qiudong Wang All sovereign societies on earth can be put roughly into two categories: developed and under-developed countries. The developed countries, including the United States, Canada, most of west Europe countries, Japan and Australia, are all free capitalist society with a well functioned democratic government and a free market economic system. The under-developed countries, including Russia and east Europe countries, India, China, Mexico, South America and Africa, are relative poor, where capitalism has not yet developed into a healthy form. In Middle East, Israel belongs to welldeveloped camp but the rest goes to under-developed category. In this essay I will discuss the history, the present and the future trend of politic and economic relationship between developed and under-developed countries. My purpose is to develop an intellectual framework, through which one could acquire a comprehensive understanding on basic characteristics of various human societies and their interaction in today’s world: where they were from; where they are now; and where they are likely heading to in future. I will illustrate that there are three different systems in under developed world: the under-developed capitalism, the totalitarian capitalism and the military imperialism of developed countries in Middle East. Developed countries, in dealing with under developed world, are in a very much favored position. They are with full strategic initiatives in the on-going global politic and......

Words: 5315 - Pages: 22


...Fat‐Loss Secret # 1 1.  The #1 make or break success factor is getting your mindset right! Looking back over the last couple of years at my clients who have had the most Jaw Dropping, Eye Popping Extreme results, and they all had a certain mind set before every workout.  No, they didn’t put on war paint and go commando (well some of them did).  Simply put, before every workout, they committed to giving 100%.  No excuses, No complaining.  Believe it or not, once you practice this mindset a few times, it becomes an easy habit. ● Mindset Tip – before each workout, visualize what is most important to you.  Being healthy for your kids, looking ripped at the beach, having girls want your body, being the hottest girl at the club, etc.  Picture what inspires you and say to yourself‐‐ that’s me, that’s me, that’s me... Fat‐Loss Secret # 2 2. Technically, this does not burn fat, but it will make your waist look slimmer instantly. As I look around, I see endless clients with poor posture, which is the result of training programs which overly concentrates on working the chest and shoulders, combined with sedentary jobs where you are sitting at a desk or in front of a computer terminal all day. The result of this poor posture is rounded shoulders and a slumped forward appearance, which just pushes your belly out! To test this, all you have to do is stand up straight while drawing your shoulders back and instantly witness your stomach flatten. Strengthening the muscles responsible for...

Words: 2252 - Pages: 10

Viscous Losses in Pipes

...Fluids Lab Viscous Losses in Pipes Objectives: Compare the flow rate/pressure drop characteristics for flow in pipes in the laminar and turbulent regions. Apparatus: The experiment is conducted with the help of a Manometer, with which the pressure drop between two gauge points can be measured. For small pressure differences the water (oil) / air manometer is used, whereas for larger pressure differences the mercury / water (oil) manometer is used. The flow rate of the water is measured in volume per time; the flow rate of the oil is measured with a rota meter. Operating Procedure Before start: Close the valve in the downstream limb of the water/air (oil/air) manometer Switch on the pump Shut the flow control valve until there is no more fluid flow Taking measurements: Open the valve in the downstream limb of the water/air (oil/air) manometer Open flow control valve until a deflection of the manometer is registered Measure pressure difference and flow rate Change the settings of the flow control valve and repeat experiment Theory Viscous friction losses in a pipe can be predicted with the Darcy-Weisbach equation: Δp = f (L/D) (1/2) ρ V² Where ΔP = pressure drop, L = length of pipe, D = pipe diameter, = fluid density and V = mean velocity of the fluid (V = Q/A). The value of the friction factor f is equal to 64/Re (for laminar flow), where Re=VD/v. Also f is equal to 0.316Re-1/4 for turbulent flow. Water – observed   | Derived |   |   |......

Words: 1477 - Pages: 6

Pipe Friction

...NE 402 Laboratory Pressure Losses in Pipes and Fittings Objective: The Cussons Hydraulic Bench is to be used to measure friction factors and local loss coefficients in selected piping arrangements. These include sudden expansions, sudden contractions and bends. Other flow components to be studied in this lab include a Venturi flow meter and an Orifice flow meter. The theory for using Venturi tubes and orifice plates for flow rate measurement will also be verified. The hydraulics bench can be operated in both the laminar flow (Re < 2300) and turbulent flow regimes by adjustment of the fluid velocity. At low flows, the velocity is controlled by maintaining level (and therefore pressure) in two constant head tanks. The flow rates are most easily measured in this arrangement by timing liquid accumulation in calibrated beakers. An alternative method (and likely more accurate) is to weigh the mass accumulated during a given time interval. This eliminates uncertainties in the calibration of the beaker. Higher mass flow rates can be obtained by pumping through a feed block and measuring the volume of liquid via the volume gauge mounted on the hydraulics bench. Care should be taken to take data at Reynolds numbers far from the Critical Region in both the laminar and turbulent flow regions. Theory: The frictional pressure drop in a straight pipe segment can be correlated in terms of the Darcy friction factor according to the equation ∆Pf = fL ρv 2 De 2 gc (1) where: f = L = De =...

Words: 696 - Pages: 3

Pipes and Installation as It Affects Plumbing

...PIPES and INSTALLATION AS IT AFFECTS PLUMBING INSTALLATION SERVICES. Plumbing is generally refers to as a system of pipes and fixtures installed in a building for the distribution of portable water and removal of waste water. But in a wider scope, Plumbing installation services can be categorised into the following classes namely: * Cold & Hot water supply system: This is basically distribution of Portable water to building/buildings both internally and externally. * External Water Reticulation: This is water distribution network for a vast area of land. This could either be for a city, town, village, community or an Estate. * Soil & waste drainage system: This is piping system for the removal of both Soil waste from WCs and bidet and Waste water from WHB,K.S, and baths to be drained to a septic tank/soakaway pit, sewage treatment plant or public sewer. This also could be both internally or externally. * Rainwater system: This involves piping to remove rain water from building/buildings to be channelled to storm drain or external gutter. * Fire fighting system: This aspect of services is to combat any class of fire outbreak within and outside the building/buildings. It is also sub-divided into the following categories: a) Fire hose reel pipe installation - internal b) Dry & wet riser pipe installation - internal c) Sprinkler pipe installation - internal d) Fire extinguisher installation – internal & external e) Fire...

Words: 1949 - Pages: 8

Irrigation Systems

...Irrigation Systems Irrigation systems are a huge part of our society with farming, cities, or professional parks including golf courses. The term irrigation literally means to supply the land or crops with water by means of pipes, sprinklers, ditches, or streams. An irrigation system is suppose to apply the water without causing any soil erosion, excessive water loss, or reduction in water quality. There are many different kinds of irrigation systems that perform different tasks and that apply water differently to the land. One type of system is called a Ditch Irrigation. This is more of a traditional method by using ditches to channel the water through pipes to water the crops. That’s just one of the many different kinds that I will get to later. The science behind an irrigation system is incredible. When we use water in places like an industry or even our homes, about 90% of the water used is eventually returned to the environment where it replenishes water sources and can be used for other purposes. However, when water is used in an irrigation system, only about half of the water can be reused. The other half is lost due to evaporation, evapotranspiration, or is lost due to leaking pipes. “For 2005, total irrigation withdrawals were about 128,000 million gallons per day or 144,000 thousand acre-feet per year”(IrrigationWaterUse). The definition of an irrigation system is “a sprinkler irrigation system is a planned system in which all necessary components have been......

Words: 1519 - Pages: 7

Ryan Corporation Pipe Cost

...1. What is the main accounting issue? How should Ryan Corporation report the cost of replacing the lead pipes in its financial statements? 2. Prepare a problem statement. Should Ryan Corporation recognize the removal and renovation of the lead pipes as assets Statement of Financial Position (Balance Sheet) or as expenses in the Statement of Profit and Loss (Income Statement)? 3. List five key words to use to search the authoritative literature. * Removal expenses * Renovation expenses * Capital enhancements * Capitalization of costs * Building restoration Exercise 2. Case 2.2, Derecognition of a liability. Chapter 2, Page 43. 1. FASB ASC 405-20-40-1 (Liabilities->Extinguishments of Liabilities->Derecognition->General) One is able to derecognize a liability only when the debtor has been relieved of its obligation or paid the creditor. The creditor may be paid by cash, delivery of other financial assets, delivery of goods or services by the debtor. Also, reacquisition by the debtor of its outstanding debt securities whether the securities are cancelled or held as so-called treasury bonds, constitutes relieving the obligation. Also, Alliance may be relieved of the obligation judicially. Given that Mr. Baker is deceased but the obligation has not been relieved either judicially or Alliance. Upon careful interpretation, Alliance Corp. is liable to Mr. Baker for $1 million until this liability relieved either judicially or by...

Words: 574 - Pages: 3

Pipe Piling Construction Management

...this is project is a good practice of project management. 2. Introduction This project presents a proposal of pipe piling construction works at EEP (Emergency egress point) in one of the MTR domestic project. This project covers the methodology of pipe piling, project cost estimate, works program, risk assessment, environmental mitigation measure and stake holder management. 3. Background The EEP shaft is located at the Kowloon Way East, To Kwa Wan, Ma Tau Wai Road.. It is constructed as a reinforced concrete structure rectangular in shape on plan at size 7m (L) by 6m (W) located underneath the East Kowloon Way (EKW) Corridor at the junction of Ma Tau Wai Road and Chi Kiang Street. Traditional cut-and-cover method will be adopted and constructed to connect the EEP permanent structure to Entrance D and two access adits will be excavated to connect the EEP permanent structure with the tunnels. Temporary circular-formed temporary working shaft with an internal diameter of 10.4m will be excavated for the construction of the EEP permanent structure. The final shaft formation level is approximately -20.3mPD. The temporary shaft is proposed to be formed by 610mm diameter, 20mm thick pipe pile with spacing 720mm c/c, install with 305x305x240kg/m I beam inside to the pipe pile. Shaft construction will be used bottome up methos. Within the shaft, the pipe pile wall will generally be supported by layers of temporary steel ring beams and a reinforced concrete capping......

Words: 1668 - Pages: 7

The Hookah Pipe

...Final Paper Jamar Perry MGT 450/ Deborah Lomas Feb 11, 2013 The hookah pipe dates back centuries to the Indian and Arabic regions of the world and is used as a social tool in most parts for people to get together at the end of a long day and relax, its popularity is growing in certain areas of the united states and has the potential to become a profitable business. With the proper strategy plan and research establishing a hookah lounge is one the easiest ways to make a profit with less effort than the typical restaurant or bar. Because this type of business is less common in the states there is significantly less competition to go up against, the main goal would be to establish a strong customer base so that when other hookah lounges eventually try to establish they are not as successful as your business. A great strategy would be to own a percentage of share in each establishing lounge. The book states “Involves buying another company to take full control of it (anywhere from a majority 51% stake to an outright 100% ownership). “(Abraham, 2012) Often using this strategy ensures your original business concept grows and has little chance to be pushed out of business due to competition, there can be huge benefits by working together the resources are cheaper because both parties pay an amount of the cost. One of the most important things that must be understood about establishing a business......

Words: 2002 - Pages: 9

System Design for Transport of Limestone

... System design for transport of limestone to feed a cement plant at the foot of the Himalayas | Assignment 3Parviz Raminzad | 49316 materials handling System design for transport of limestone to feed a cement plant at the foot of the Himalayas | Assignment 3Parviz Raminzad | Contents Q2) Relevance of System Engineering to bulk materials handling and this project 3 Q3) Alternative Systems 4 Rail and Road 4 Aerial Ropeway 4 Building the Cement Plant near the Mine Site 4 Pipeline 4 Q4) Discuss the purpose of the items in Figure1 5 Q5) Discuss the purpose of Rheological and Flow test 15 Purpose of Rheological and Flow Tests. 15 Importance of Pilot Plant Tests 16 Q6) Design Selection 17 a. Delivery Pipeline 17 Quantity to Be Pumped 18 Size of Pipeline 19 Friction Head Hf for the Pipeline 19 Loss in Discharge Pipe Enlargement 20 Loss at Pipe Discharge 20 Loss of Head at Entrance to Suction Pipe 20 Total Dynamic Head on the Pump [Hm] 21 Equivalent Water Total Dynamic Head [Hw] 21 b. Warman Pump Selection 21 Piston Pumps and Pipe Validation 22 a. Piston Pumps 22 b. Pipe Design Parameters 23 8) Design Parameters of the main pipeline 23 Q9) Alternative Systems 26 References: 27 Q2) Relevance of System......

Words: 3188 - Pages: 13

Financial Accountancy - How Will You Deal with Normal Loss of Stocks, Abnormal Loss of Stocks, Goods Returned by Branch Customers Directly to Head Office and Cash Remitted by Branch Customers Directly to H.O. Under Debtors System

...Need Answer Sheet of this Question paper, contact aravind.banakar@gmail.com www.mbacasestudyanswers.com ARAVIND – 09901366442 – 09902787224 Financial Accountancy Note: - Attempt any 5 questions. Q.1 a) How will you deal with normal loss of stocks, abnormal loss of stocks, goods returned by branch customers directly to head office and cash remitted by branch customers directly to H.O. under debtors system? b) A trader has a branch at calcutia to which goods are involved at cost plus 20 % prepare a branch account in H.O. books from the following: Rs. Opening stock at Branch 24,000 Cash scale at Branch 17,000 Credit sales 41,000 Collection from debtors 37,900 Goods received from H.O. 30,000 Branch Expenses 3,000 Paid by Branch 6,000 Expenses unpaid 10,000 Closing stock at Branch ......

Words: 864 - Pages: 4

Energy Losses Due to Friction in a Cylindrical Pipe

...experiment as we see from the title is energy losses due to friction of a pipe. As this experiment is one of the usual experiments because the results of such types of experiments are used in our lives. We take an example of central heating in a house, pipes is all over the house so to work properly and without more losses you expect you have to do this experiments. Our experiment it was simple of the way to get the measurements we want to study it. The objective of this experiment as the title is saying and as we said is to find the losses and the friction in a cylindrical pipe. We will change the pressure drop, the volume of the water, the diameter of the pipe to scratch the surface of the many factors due to calculate and have some results. Moreover from this experiment is two factors from friction when the flow is laminar and when is turbulence. These two factors are basic to see the difference between the generalised smoothens in the pipes. By doing this and comparing we can afford to get a conclusion for the flow rate in a pipe and how is reacting depending of the diameter of the pipes and other factors we will see in the experiment. Aim and objectives: As we said from our introduction the aim this experiment is to study the behaviour of water in the pipes find the losses and the friction in different diameter of pipes. Therefore to gain an insight into the behaviour of fluid flow in pipes the connections for estimating energy losses. We have three basic......

Words: 509 - Pages: 3

Managerial Economics - 1720 Words | Small Business Sucess - 1165 Words | Duff: Hast du keine, bist du Eine