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Words 1054

Pages 5

Task Type: Discussion Board Deliverable Length: 3 Parts: See Assignment Details

Points Possible: 75

Graphs and Trees

Task Background: Graphs and trees provide you with ways to visualize data sets, and the opportunity to do analysis on the data (e.g., shortest path). Knowing the structure of a database enables you to choose a proper algorithm for searching for data within a database.

Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, write up to 3 paragraphs that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.

Part I (25 points – distributed as follows)

Trees are somewhat less complicated than graphs, which makes things like data searching easier, when a data has the structure of a tree. However, not all data can be represented by a tree.

Give an example of a data set that cannot be represented by a tree, but that can be represented by a more general graph.

1) Create, show, and describe your data set. (5 points)

V = {Bill, John, Kim, James, Chris, Destiny, Noah, Paul}

E = {(Bill, John), (Kim, James), (Chris, Destiny), (Noah, Paul), (Bill, Kim), (John, Chris), (Destiny, Noah)}

These are people that are employees at a store. Some work on the same shift together and associate with each other.

2) Then, show by building a graph, how your data is represented by a graph. (5 points)

Bill

Bill

John

John

Chris

Chris

Kim

Kim

Destiny

Destiny

James

James

Noah

Noah

Paul

Paul

3) Explain exactly why…...

...Programming project 3 Task Title: Implementation of basic command-line interface to GraphApplication Task Description: Implement classes that will instantiate a graph editor. The system should accept various kinds of objects from user by given commands, and respond to these commands by creating node objects, creating arc objects, displaying them or deleting them. Implement the following classes: 1. GraphApplication class that will implement command line interface and interact with the user: This class needs to implement the following commands in its run() method: a. quit – exits the application b. nodes - lists the nodes in the graph c. arcs – lists the arcs in the graph these commands do not need index or parameters d. node - this command requires object for which the node will be created e. dir-arc – this command requires two objects that have nodes and relation name and makes a directed arc between them f. undir-arc – this command requires two objects that are added to nodes and relation name and makes non-directed (symmetric) arc between them these commands can take any object, but for now we will use strings g. printout, delete – these commands require an index or name for the object to be shown or deleted if delete takes two arguments it deletes the corresponding arc, of it gets only one, it deletes a node, if printout takes one argument it prints a node, if it takes two arguments it prints the fact......

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...joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka 3 GRAPH THEORY AND APPLICATIONS ISBN 0-558-83970-3 Discrete and Combinatorial Mathematics: An Applied Introduction, Fifth Edition, by Ralph P. Grimaldi. Published by Addison Wesley. Copyright © 2004 by Pearson Education, Inc. joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka joka......

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...Phase 3 DB Graphs and Trees Elie De Jesus MATH203-1302A-01 – Discrete Mathematics Professor Andrew Halverson April 24, 2013 Part I Graphs and trees are a little more complicated to understand than what I thought. Based on the information that I found they give you a way to visualize your sets and use the data that you have to find the shortest path. So because of this it shows that Trees cannot contain a cycle, so a set would be Y=COS(X); which can be a general graph but not a tree. The one example that I understood was the one about “the mileage on a bike”. Now I don’t quite understand the example but it shows that the graph would have a decrease in mileage where as it would increase in time. That is not how a tree is explained because there is no sequence to be shown for the data. This is the examples graph: So based on that example I understand that the tree encoding defines a root node or one path between two nodes that represent the output of a solution. A tree is still a graph but without multiple paths. So to be a tree it has to start from any node and be able to reach another, there can be no cycles, and you must have more nodes that edges. Part II To first answer this question one must know the meaning of a Breadth-first or a Depth-first. A Breadth-first search is a strategy for searching in a graph when search is limited to essentially two operations: (a) visit and inspect a node of a graph; (b) gain access to visit the nodes that neighbor the......

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...Section 9.1: Exercises 6, 12, 20, 28, 32, 50 6.) Explain why each graph is that of a function. * Each graph is that of a function because at each point in a graph we get a value for y corresponding to a value for x. This is just the pictorial reflection of what we get in case of a function. Solve each system by substitution 12.) Solution * 2x + y = 5 * y = 5- 2x Substituting in first equation 4x – 5y = -11 4x – 5(5-2x) = -11 4x – 25 + 10x = -11 14 x = -11 + 25 14x = 14 x = 1 Therefore, we get : So, y = 5-2x = 5 -2*1 = 3 x = 1, y =3 Solve each system by elimination. 20.) Solution 4x +y = -23 ………………………eq 1 x - 2y = -17…………………………….eq 2 Performing 2*eq 1 + eq 2 we get : 8x + 2y = -46 x – 2y = -17 This Gives us : 8x + x = -46 -17 9x = -63 x = -7 So, x – 2y = -17 -7 -2y = -17 2y = 17-7 =10 y = 5 So, X = -7, Y =5 28.) Solution 3x/2 + y/2 = -2 * 3x + y = -4 ……………………………….eq 1 x/2 + y/2 = 0 * x + y = 0 ………………………………………..eq2 Performing eq 1 – eq 2 3x + y = -4 (-)x + (-)y = (-)0 3x – x = -4 * 2x = -4 * X = -2 So, X + y = 0 * -2 + y = 0 * Y = 2 So, x = - 2, y = 2 Solve each system. State whether it is inconsistent or has infinitely many solutions. If the system has infinitely many solutions, write the solution set and y arbitrary. 32) Solution 3x + 2y = 5 ……………….eq 1 6x + 4y = 8 ……………….eq2 * 3x + 2y = 4 ……………………...

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...heading “Method of Collecting Data”. Mention whether the data was received from different sources, like government agencies or departments within the firm. Also explain each source’s method for reporting data. Explain about the method of accounting analysis for these distinct reporting methods. 5. Title the next section as “Significant Financial Events” and under this section, enlist the events which occurred during the studied time period and which altered results. 6. Proceed with a section titled “Detailed Results” which includes a comprehensive analysis about the investment returns, balance sheets, income statement, and productivity ratios. Also comment on each of these factors in addition to providing support for your statements with graphs and tables. 7. Evaluate results from various quarters in a section titled “Analysis of Variance”. 8. Prepare an appendix for “Financial Revenues” defining how that term was used for preparing the report. Tabulate the revenues over the analysis’ time period. 9. End the report with an appendix for “Observations” discussing any problems faced while performing analysis and thereafter explaining about how research method handled problems. Conclude the report with a statement projecting future performance on the basis of past years’ performance. BalanceSheet - Apollo Tyres Ltd. | | | | | | | Particulars | Mar'13 | Mar'12 | Mar'11 | Mar'10 | Mar'09 | Liabilities | 12 Months | 12 Months | 12 Months | 12 Months | 12 Months | Share......

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...Decision trees http://www.alchemyformanagers.co.uk/topics/4qpj5es2SiaJVVXn.html Decision trees A decision tree is a visual tool for analysing decisions. In using it, you generate a tree-like graph of decisions and their consequences. In the simplest form of this technique Squares represent decisions Triangles represent end points. Jewish proverb When the graph is completed, you can then add probabilities for each of the individual branches and from the overall probabilities of the end points. If there are two courses of action, you should take the third. Using the technique As a simple example, let’s suppose that I decide that I want to travel from my home to a hotel in town A. So let’s draw the options in a decision tree: We can now add some percentages to reflect either our preferences or an estimate of some factor that we would like to consider (for example cost, estimated likelihood and so on). In this case, I will use personal preferences: I am assuming here that the train station is close to my home. For ‘walk’ I have added 0 per cent because it is a long distance to town A. The bus takes a long time, but it is quite cheap, so I have given it ten per cent. Notice that I have also added end points to ‘walk’ and ‘drive’ as they both get me to my destination. ‘Train’ and ‘bus’ however do not get me to my final destination, so I now extend my decision tree by adding more decision points, options and estimates: We can now see what the final end point......

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...Read this essay on the Importance of Trees ! Plants are very important for us. They provide us fresh fruits, wood, natural herbs and many things of professional value. They are home to numerous wildlife, bugs and creatures. They provide colour to men and creatures. They prevent famine and cause rain fall. They help in verifying polluting the environment. They provide us fresh air to take in and play essential role in the process of CO2. So, we should increase forestation. Wood is the most effective product that trees provide us with. We use wooden often. Wood is used as petrol and wood. Wood is used to make furnishings. Wood is also used to lay the paths of the railways. Plants are excellent sources of therapeutic natural herbs, ribbons and raw materials for many sectors. We get resins, organic gum area, etc. from the trees. The bamboo sheets bedding is an essential wide range of shrub which develops in large quantity. It is of excellent professional value. It is found everywhere. It is used as building content to make short-term shed. It is an essential resource of protection for the poor and financially sluggish individuals. Bamboo is used to make pads, barrier, bag and various products of the crafts. Bamboo is used as raw content to make paper. Cane is another wide range of shrub which is used in many things. Mats, rules and furnishings are created from the cane. Furniture created of cane is highly creative, wonderful and costly. Lac is one of the most......

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...Importance of trees Trees are really important in a human being’s life. Without them we, humans, can’t live. Although trees are important, they aren’t cared about and are used unwisely. Trees need to be saved and people should stop wasting paper and such so that we can save as much trees as we can. Trees have a lot of benefits which we should appreciate and care about. Starting off, trees provide the oxygen that we breathe. Without that oxygen, we won’t be able to live. If trees are the ones keeping us alive, shouldn’t we be thankful and help save them? Trees produce a lot of oxygen to keep us alive. “In one year an acre of mature trees can provide enough oxygen for 18 people” (TreePeople). This means that in one year, a bunch of fully developed trees can produce enough oxygen to keep 18 people alive. Trees help us live, so we should help them too. Second, tees help moderate the earth’s temperature. The shade from trees helps cool the earth’s temperature. (eco kids). Without the shades from the trees the earth would be a burning hell. It would be too hot to go outside. Those shades help maintain the temperature and cool it down. The trees do that by absorbing heat, and producing shade. This, again, is another reason we should be thankful to trees. Last but not least, trees provide us with an enormous amount of food that we need to survive. They provide us with food directly and indirectly. Directly, is when we eat fruits or vegetables. We get the fruits from the tree...

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...Internet that said, “Imagine if trees gave off Wi-Fi signals, we would be planting so many trees and we’d probably save the planet too. Too bad they only produce the oxygen we breathe.” It’s sad how true that statement is, we value access to the Internet more than we value the air we breathe every day. Trees are the one thing that help us survive and people view them as trivial objects more and more each day, underestimating the fact that our destruction of them could lead to a destruction of us. The leaves of trees can come in all different shapes and sizes. They form in bunches and give a sense of hair to the tree, adding a way to differentiate one tree from another. With the leaves, trees give us beauty. There’s not a prettier sight than mid-October, when all the tree’s leaves have changed colors and everywhere you turn there are different types of reds, oranges, yellows and more. The foliage is just one of the many reasons why trees are important, they give us natural beauty. They could be described as a painting in nature just without using brushes, paint or canvases. Tree’s trunks come in all different sizes, some thicker than others, giving protection in a way, to us humans and to animals. Since most trunks are big, hunters usually hide in between them when they’re looking for potential game. They wear camouflage to blend in with the trees, usually in patterns of different types of greens, browns and light mustard yellows. Speaking of game, trees also are the home......

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...Trees Most trees around the world are located in the Russian taiga. It is only fitting since Russia is the largest country by far, although lots of trees around the world are being cut down at an alarming rate so it wouldn't be surprising to see the tree population of Russia go down. Trees are a renewable resource- by the planting of more trees even though it takes a few years for trees to get big we still have plenty of them around. Wood is made of tiny fibers called cellulose and the natural glue that holds them together is called lignin. When wood is turned into paper, heat and chemicals dissolve the lignin and the cellulose fibers come out. Byproducts of this process are used in asphalt, paint, chewing gum, detergents and turpentine. Cellulose is used for more than just paper. It is used for dinnerware including melamine in it, toilet seats, tool handles and cellophane. You can also use it to produce helmets, toothbrushes and electrical outlets. Some other you can make from it is nail polish, rocket fuel and industrial explosives. Wood pulping by-products are used for lots of weird things like cleaning stuff, deodorants, hair spray, and even fake vanilla flavorings! We obtain all the wood by cutting down trees with machines, chainsaws, and sometimes axes! Deforestation is the clearing Earth's forests in a big way, often resulting in damage to the quality of the land. Deforestation has many negative effects on the environment. The biggest impact is a loss of habitat for...

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...and bamboos are also trees. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. The tallest known tree, a coast redwood named Hyperion, stands 115.6 m (379 ft) high. Trees have been in existence on the Earth for 370 million years. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk. This trunk typically contains woody tissue for strength, and vascular tissue to carry materials from one part of the tree to another. For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark which serves as a protective barrier. Below the ground, the roots branch and spread out widely; they serve to anchor the tree and extract moisture and nutrients from the soil. Above ground, the branches divide into smaller branches and shoots. The shoots typically bear leaves, which capture light energy and convert it into sugars by photosynthesis, providing the food for the tree's growth and development. Flowers and fruit may also be present, but some trees, such as conifers, instead have pollen cones and seed cones; others, such as tree ferns, produce spores instead. Trees play a significant role in reducing erosion and moderating the climate. They remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store large quantities of carbon in their tissues. Trees and forests......

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...Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay Trees Essay......

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...Christmas Trees Christmas trees are an icon around this time of year. It doesn’t fail while driving down the road and there’s a car with a tree strapped on the hood. Christmas trees come in a variety of different shapes, size, and color and yes smell. Before starting a Christmas tree farm, one must figure out what type of trees they want to have, or what variety they want. The most common types of trees that would be found in a person’s tree stand would be Douglas fir, Fraser Fir, Noble Fir, Scotch pine, Eastern White Pine, Virginia Pine, Grand Fir, and Eastern Red Cedar. Douglas fir have soft needles with a dark green in color. The needles can reach to an inch in half. The needles have a sweet fragrance when crushed, most common Christmas tress species. The Fraser Fir have branches that face up, with an excellent scent as well. They have a blue-green color. These trees are easy for shipping. Noble Fir are known for their beauty. They have strong branches to hang ornaments, and are used well for wreaths and garland. Scotch pine have needles that are an inch in length and have a bright green color. The needles will not fall off the tree when dry. It is also a common tree because of the freshness it keeps through the holidays. Eastern White Pine have soft green needles. It has a strong scent, and produces decorative pine cones. Virginia Pine is the most unusual as it can tolerate warmer winter temperatures. The tree is smaller than the other varieties, and is more common......

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...cost which makes the production unprofitable 4. High energy cost because of the machines that will produce fiber 5. Continuous cutting of trees which is the major source in producing paper Opportunities of the industry 1. Growth of paper in local consumption because of population growth 2. Cheap price compare to other competing product 3. More cities are complying to total plastic ban in the Philippines which means mostly paper will serve as carrier bag 4. Paper is one of the fastest way used to give information 5. Most paper serves as food container because of its safe composition Threats of the industry 1. There environmental requirements are getting more stringent 2. Increasing competition in other competing materials 3. Innovation of materials in other industry happened while paper retained its traditional uses throughout decades 4. Paper quality is weak that it cannot hold heavy materials 5. The sources of raw material are only limited and may take time to produce Alternative Courses of Action 1. Create own source of wood pulp (through industrial plantation and recycled papers) Advantages * Environmental friendly * Improve country’s wastepaper recovery and recycling rate * Low cost in long term benefits Disadvantages * It takes time to wait for trees to be used in production (5-7 years) * Reforestation would be costly * Costly because another large area of plantation will be needed......

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...previous page into the spreadsheet. t'JJ The first issue you have to deal with is the heading "Concentration (mol/L)" is too large to fit in • j cell AI. This must be fixed. You can either increase the column width or wrap text. l'j The second issue is that by default, data in the spreadsheet is not "centered" in the cells as shown in the figure. This must also be fixed. Follow the instructions of your instructor. o Notes: • 3. initial here: • 0 Your spreadsheet should look exactly like that in the example, including capitalization, etc. If it does, 2 " :rQ.e 0~ j Name • Using Spreadsheets and Graphing A Skill-Building Exercise in Excel Goal: To Successfully Create an XY Scatter Chart (Graph) using Microsoft Excel 2013 Introduction This lab exercise will walk you through 20 J 3 and using the available I. Background: In most spreadsheet the process of creating an XY Scatter Chart using Microsoft Excel features to format the Scatter Chart. Entering Data in a Spreadsheet programs, the columns and the rows are labeled with numbers. are labeled with letters 1 2 is called a cell. It is common At the intersection L_ of each row and column is a place where data may be entered and this space to place data in a spreadsheet so that 3 sets of related data values are placed in the same row. An example 4 of this would 5 6 temperature be to put a time......

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