Genetically Modified Crop Plants

In: Science

Submitted By MissNicole69
Words 1578
Pages 7
Gene Therapy: Genetically Modified Crop Plants


Introduction to Biology - SCI 115

Professor Johnson

March 4, 2014

Genetically modified organisms have become a standard rather than an exception in America. Since their introduction in the 1990’s, genetically modified (GM) products have conquered agriculture in the United States and hold a large share of the food on American’s plates. (Dupont) Everyone has been exposed to it whether they know it or not. According to the US Department of agriculture by 2012, 88 percent of corn and 94 percent of soy grown in the United States were genetically modified. The purpose of this essay is to explain what genetically modified crop plants are, to discuss the social and ethical implications and to provide my personal view point.

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are defined as organisms whose genome has been modified as genetic engineering. Transferring a gene from one species to another to provide an organism that is transgenic or a gene that may be altered and reinserted into an individual of the same species are the results of a genetically modified organism. Genes can be introduced into plant cells by way of electric or chemical shocks, by blasting them. The most common GMOs are bacteria and yeast, which have been modified to produce medically important proteins which has benefitted people with diabetes. (Starr, Evers, & Starr, 2013)

GMOs or GM is used to refer to crop plants that are created for animal or human consumption using the latest molecular biology techniques. According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), GM technology enables plant breeders to bring together in one plant useful genes from a wide range of living sources, not just from the crop species or from closely related plants.

Studies show that genetically modified crops are used…...

Similar Documents

Genetically Modified Food

...Genetically Modified Foods June 4, 2012 SCI 220 Although not widely publicized, genetically modified foods have been in our food supply for decades. Genetically modified foods are engineered to benefit and protect the food supply by providing an abundant supply of crops that may repel insects without the need for pesticides and less expensive crops that maintain freshness for longer. There are also disadvantages in using genetically modified foods because the genetically modified version of the food may differ from the original food, losing its nutritional value or creating an allergen. The continuous study and regulation of genetically modified foods will protect the food supply and the people who consume it. Since the onslaught of pesticide use and environmental concerns, genetically modified foods have made its way into grocery stores and supermarkets. The “Bionet” (n.d.) website states, “Genetically modified food products are plants that have had their genetic characteristics altered. Scientists change the plants' characteristics by putting new genetic material into them, genes for example from a bacterium which can withstand pesticides.” Without knowing, Americans consume GM foods daily. Most people are unaware of the modifications in their food because the United States, unlike Australia, does not require a GM food label to identify whether or not the food is modified or not (Berry, 2012). According to Berry (2012),......

Words: 1368 - Pages: 6

Genetically Modified Organisms

...Thesis: Genetically modified organisms are all around us, more dominantly in the food we eat. From the good at your local fast food chain, to the milk you drink, bananas, chicken, tomatoes, and the beef you buy at your local grocery store. Scientists have discovered that by inserting genetic information from one organism to another and modifying it into another organism, it makes the food crops stay fresher, grow bigger, and make the crops produce their own pesticides. However, the technology to modify these genes has gone beyond its practicality. If science continues to genetically modify foods they have the potential to pose various risks to our bodies, the environment, as well as, have a huge impact on the global economy. Some risks associated with genetically modified food is the lack of research, lack of regulations, and the possible long term health risks associated with eating genetically modified food. In our paper, we plan to discuss all of these issues and show that while there are some benefits to genetically modified foods, the risks associated with the genetic modifications vastly outweigh the benefits. Introduction: Genetically modified organisms are any organism that has had a gene from one organism implanted into another organism in order to improve or change the genetic makeup of that organism. It can also be referred to as transgenic, due to the process being the transfer of genes from one organism to another. Other names also referred to are......

Words: 1406 - Pages: 6

Safety of Genetically Modified Foods

...Genetically modified foods (GM foods) are foods from genetically modified organisms, such as genetically modified crops, plants and other foods. It is widely scientifical argue that food form GM crops through genetic engineering is methods. However, opponents have objected to GM foods including food safety issues and customers’ economics concerns. This essay will discuss the extent to which GM foods influence how people and what types of GM food exist in daily food. Ever now, some developing countries still have famine and malnutrition. One of the most significant problems facing poor countries currently is the rapid climb in population. In the last two decades, the population of the world is doubled. As the population of the world is increased, which becoming a global issue, the most important problem is that the shortage of food. Most worryingly, over 800 million people still have too much poverty to eat. Meanwhile, there is a slowly increased in yield-enhancing crop (Lipton, 2001). According to Bouis (2007), the authors suggest, ‘one way that biotechnology can help to improve the nutrition and health of consumers in developing countries is by increasing the vitamin and mineral content and their bioavailability in staple foods’. Bouis suggested that the supply of food adapted to the population, and the only way to solve this problem is that biotechnology can grow the crops’ output and adaptive capacity, which it through genetic engineering to change hereditary character......

Words: 1494 - Pages: 6

Genetically Modified Organisms

... In a sense, it is almost as if we should redefine the simple name of what we eat. Is a carrot still a carrot? What gives the food we eat a name? The debate on genetically modified foods is one that continues to carry stronger and stronger throughout the years. Some crops are modified to prevent insects from eating them, other foods are altered bio-mechanically to provide additional resources or to grow larger. Even so far as farm animals are given treatments that dramatically increase their body size, yielding more meat. To preface the argument food or against genetically modified foods: there is simply no easy solution. The overall scenario of genetically modified foods has many different parameters. These parameters include ethical, religious, legal and environmental ramifications. It would be equally as irrational to say that genetically modified foods were more or less dangerous than they were beneficial. The perspective to the scenario should be taken on both micro and macro levels, and to perceive their effects in the most open-minded scenarios as possible. Much of the rhetoric against genetically modified foods focuses on a fraction of what they entail; while, perhaps, leaving out economic models that suggest fewer alternatives. A great example that sets the playing field for genetically modified foods is the nutrition shortage in Southeast Asia. In this region, rice is the greatest staple food. Unfortunately, because the area is in relative poverty and......

Words: 3305 - Pages: 14

Are Genetically Modified Crops the Solution to Our Global Food Crisis?

...was the development of high yielding varieties (HYVs) of crops such as rice and wheat were selectively bred from thousands of varieties to increase yields. Techniques such as fertilising, irrigation and pesticides were also introduced to increase yields. The green revolution helped bring a large increase in global food production. This encouraged farmers in the developing world to ‘leapfrog’ from centuries of old farming systems such as manual labour and relying upon natural sources to high-tech farming The green revolution was an enormous success. It meant that there was rapid growth of varieties of rice which allowed multiple crops per year, with the capacity to create more yields. Another benefit is that HYV are now produced to be resistant to pesticides and diseases. India benefitted greatly from HYV and allowed it to become self-sufficient in terms of rice in the 1980s. Yields of wheat, rice and maize in India grew by over 2% per year between 1967-1996 which demonstrates evidence that the green revolution was a solution and a success. GM crops Genetically modified crops are crops derived from those whose genetic material has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally, e.g. through the introduction of a gene from a different organism. The beginning of GM crops was in 1977 when the discovery that soil bug Agrobacterium tumefaction’s can be used as a tool to inject useful foreign genes and DNA into plants. This microorganism, with additional help from......

Words: 1241 - Pages: 5

Genetically Modified Organism

...GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD RESEARCH SUBMITTED BY: DOLORFINO, JOSE NORBIE T. SBGE I -13 Top 10 Genetically Modified Food Products Like humans, all organisms have genetic material. When scientists alter genetic material, or DNA, it's called genetic modification (GM). Genetically modifying foods or food crops can enhance taste and quality, increase nutrients or improve resistance to pests and disease. In some cases, GM foods help conserve natural resources, because the altered version might require less water or energy for processing. The first genetically modified food to reach our tables was the Flavr Savr tomato. Grown in California, the Flavr Savr tomato received Food and Drug Administration approval in 1994, after two years of testing and assessment. Mounting costs made the crop unprofitable, however, and production ceased in 1997. Creation of the Flavr Savr opened the doors for other GM foods to make their way into our kitchens. In the U.S., genetic modification has expanded into almost every area of food production. Scientists can introduce some sort of modification into the genes of crops, dairy products and animals. For example, ranchers and dairy farmers normally feed cattle a GM diet, which is in turn passed on to you when you drink milk or eat beef. Do you need to worry about what's on your family's dinner table? And are there some surprising benefits to GM foods? As you'll see, this subject is one hot potato. 10. SUGAR BEETS The sugar beet is one of...

Words: 2493 - Pages: 10

Genetically Modified Foods

...Introduction Genetically modified, by definition, is a term denoting or derived from an organism whose DNA has been altered for the purpose of improvement or correction of defects. ( Genetically modified foods are foods that have been altered to enhance certain traits for the purpose of making them more desirable to consumers. Since the development of this process, modified foods have become more common throughout the years, and with their increase in production there has also been great controversy. History of Genetically Modified Foods In 1994, the first genetically modified food the Food and Drug Administration deemed safe enough for human consumption was a tomato called the “Flavr Savr,” produced in California. The purpose of altering the tomato was for it to be resistant to rotting and decaying as quickly as tomatoes usually do. They were not labeled as being genetically modified and they were between two and five time more expensive than ordinary tomatoes, but consumers still purchased them. However, due to competition, brought on by a tomato made conventionally and with a longer shelf life, the Flavr Savr tomatoes were not profitable. Genetically modified tomatoes were then made into a tomato puree and sold in Europe in the mid-1990s, but a couple years later controversy arose over the concept of genetically modifying food. In 1998, a doctor from Aberdeen, in Scotland, published results from a research study he conducted suggesting that......

Words: 2724 - Pages: 11

Genetically Engineered Crops: the Solution

...Running head: GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CROPS: THE SOLUTION 1 Genetically Engineered Crops: The Solution November 30, 2013 GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CROPS: THE SOLUTION Genetically Engineered Crops: Solution 2 In order to understand the controversy of genetically engineered crops one must understand what genetic engineering or genetic modification is:“GMO are organisms that are generated by combining genes of different species using recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology. Resulting organisms are then said to be transgenic, genetically engineered or genetically modified (GM). This group of organisms includes... plants.”(Celec et al., 2005) The genetic modification of crops and plants was created so that crops could, “... protect themselves against insects and disease, to feed and vaccinate people at the same time, to flourish in poor soil and drought, or to improve the quantity and bioavailability of individual nutrients.”(Roberts, Struble, McCullum-Gomez, Wilkins, 2006). These benefits may seem to outweigh the risks and in reality they do, however this does not mean the consumer should not be notified of the risks they are taking. The hallmark of our free society demands that the consumer be able to choose whether or not they want to eat something that may have health risks. Labeling that identifies GMO ingredients allows for the consumer to choose a particular product while ensuring that the producer feels more at ease with the way they disclose information and promote......

Words: 1322 - Pages: 6

Genetically Modified Crops

...molecular function and interactions among genes. It is so called to differentiate it from other sub fields of genetics such as ecological genetics and population genetics. Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering techniques. In most cases the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests, diseases, or environmental conditions, reduction of spoilage, or resistance to chemical treatments (e.g. resistance to a herbicide), or improving the nutrient profile of the crop. Examples in non-food crops include production of pharmaceutical agents, biofuels, and other industrially useful goods, as well as for bioremediation. I disagree with the use of GM (genetically modified) crops. Scientists need further research on that before using those GMOs. Scientists also need to know the long term effects of GMOs when people continue using it. It may not be studied yet, but as soon as possible all the people should be inform about the effects of GMOs. Genetically modified foods might cause illness such as cancer, according to Dr. Stanley Ewen, raised the concern that food and water contaminated with genetically engineered material could increase the growth of malignant tumors upon contact with humans. One of the disadvantages of using GMOs is adverse effects on the immune......

Words: 363 - Pages: 2

Genetically Modified Crops

...Today, anyone can go to the grocery store and purchase fruits and vegetables that have been genetically modified. As a matter of fact, most of us do it unknowingly all the time. But, what exactly are genetically modified foods and what sets it apart from traditional breeding? The biotech industry and our departments of agriculture claim that genetic engineering is a natural extension of traditional breeding. However, traditional agriculture methods, such as cross-pollination or selective breeding, are based on natural reproductive mechanisms. These traditional methods will cross only one kind of plant or animal with a similar species. To be specific, genetic engineering crosses the coded DNA barrier and utilizes very powerful (and unnatural) laboratory techniques for transferring genetic material directly between plants and animals. Using these techniques, genes from any plant, animal, virus, or other organism, including a human, can be inserted into any other organism. Therefore, scientists have been able to take “beneficial genes” from some plants or animals and splice them into the DNA of fruits and vegetables. This modification process can make them resistant to pesticides and or insects. Some have even been able to modify rice to have vitamin A as well as the high carbohydrates it also contains; they call it “Golden rice.” This all seems like great progress. At a glance, one might even conclude that this technology could end world hunger. It might even be concluded that......

Words: 1364 - Pages: 6

Crop Plants

...GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROP PLANTS Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are being made by inserting a gene from an external source such as viruses, bacteria, animals or plants into usually unrelated species. Biotechnology has granted us the ability to overcome insurmountable physiological barriers and to exchange genetic materials among all living organisms. Concerning bacteria, the ability to genetically modify plants depends on obtaining genetically identical populations and readily manipulating DNA. The use of recombinant DNA technology has the potential to allow the creation of an organism which is desired and designed by human. According by Halford, N.G, Shewry, P.R, genetically Modified crop means any crop containing or derived from a genetically engineered organism.   Another method is to culture plants from totipotent cells found in plant meristems. These plant cells can divide and differentiate into the various types of specialized cells.......

Words: 1267 - Pages: 6

Genetically Modified Crops

...GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS INTRODUCTION These are crops whose genetic composition has been artificially manipulated. It is done through inserting DNA into a species that has been extracted from another one. Advancements in the biotechnology in cell and molecular biology make it possible. Involves growing of plants in less than favourable climatic and geographic conditions than required. Development of the tissue culture technique that enables the cells to regenerate to the whole plant is also another method. Venturing in this type of agriculture is to produce crops that tolerate different factors like herbicides. Specific herbicides will be sprayed, and weeds killed sparing the cops. Insect tolerant plants through gene coding toxins ensure plants are tolerant to worms and insects that destroy them. Cotton worms and Colorado potato beetles are an example of these. These plants were introduced with a view to improving the quality and nutrition of the produce of the farmers. They process of production has significantly been modified reducing the cost and wastages enabling a bigger yield. The fruiting characteristics also improved extensively to higher levels than when using traditional crossbreeding methods. These crops are mostly grown in greenhouses and, therefore, can be grown throughout all seasons enabling continued production. Consumers can be supplied with them throughout the year hence an efficient method of production. Some of the crops that are......

Words: 2276 - Pages: 10

Genetically Modified Organisms

...potential shortages: genetically modified crops. The genetic make-up of these crops is altered, combining genes of multiple organisms such as plants, to produce favorable outcomes such as higher yields. With genetically engineered crops ever-present in our food supply, debates have risen in the media concerning the safety and overall implication of these crops. Conducting research on the topic, I have discovered three different perspectives on the use and implications of genetically engineered crops. One perspective, found in the article “Plant Genetics, Sustainable Agriculture and Global Food Security” by Pamela Ronald, states that genetically modified crops are essential to combat the growing population and other stresses on our agriculture industry. Another perspective, offered in the article “Genetically modified abominations?” by Jakub Kwiecinski, defines these crops as “taboo” and argues that they are ultimately morally unacceptable. The last perspective, presented in the article “Genetically Modified Foods and Public Health Debate: Designing Programs to Mitigate Risks” published in Public Administration & Management, acknowledges that there are risks associated with these crops and that more testing and regulation is needed to increase public acceptance. After review, I arrived at the conclusion that genetically modified crops are needed and that more stringent regulation and public awareness is necessary to increase acceptance. In the article “Plant Genetics,......

Words: 1775 - Pages: 8

Genetically Modified Foods

...Genetically Modified Foods Linda L. Day SCI207 – Dependence of Man on the Environment Cynthia Collins February 26th, 2012 Genetically Modified Foods Genetically modified foods have increased the total harvest of many cash crops by eradicating the harm done by weeds and insects, and for the most part, this has been the single greatest benefit that GMOs have presented within the last decade. There are benefits being speculated and tested as of now to future speculation on what this science can bring us. There are other ways that GMOs are able to increase the overall bounty of a crops harvest, such as resisting dangerous diseases and being able to sustain the plant with less water or less nutrients. There have also been attempts to create plants resistant to more untamable forces of nature rather than pests, such as the temperature. There have been many speculations that cold-resistant crops, mainly corn and other fruits and vegetable, could be created by taking the DNA of cold-tolerant fish in the Arctic and splicing it with these foods. “An antifreeze gene from cold water fish has been introduced into plants such as tobacco and potato. With this antifreeze gene, these plants are able to tolerate cold temperatures that normally would kill unmodified seedlings,” (Whitman). One benefit in particular that has seemed to have caught the eye of retailers especially adding more nutritional benefits to foods, such as rice with built-in Vitamin A that can help prevent......

Words: 1415 - Pages: 6

Genetically Modified Food

... Genetically Modified Food The field of biotechnology and genetic engineering has been gradually improved, and the bioengineer could make a huge difference in our life by modifying the crops that we need. Genetically modified food could solve many problems to humans such as, cultivating new crops with new characteristics that could help humans. Also genetic engineering could help some countries to cultivate new crops they couldn’t cultivate it before for many reasons such as weather, soil type, and cultivating seasons. However, recently genetically modified food could make a big influence to human’s life, and it helped them to cultivate new crops, they wouldn’t be able to cultivate it without it. About 200 years ago Thomas Malthus predicted that according to that big increase in the humans’ population which is currently up to six billions, “the number of mouths that need to feed is increased. The numbers of cultivated crops is stable since Thomas Malthus has made his prediction; this has been the result of amazing technological advances in agricultural sciences with advent of biotechnology and genetic engineering, which have served to increase the average yield of various farm products’’ (Nayak 112). Most of the countries started to cultivate genetically modified crops to feed their needs, and they could increase their crops number quickly. Global cultivation of genetically modified food in 1996 was three million......

Words: 1078 - Pages: 5

Rgimdi karcsony (2010) Nézettség: 624 Hossz: 84 min IMDB: 5.5 Beküldve: 2017/11/11 Rgimdi karcsony 2010 | テクテクテクテク | Рэмпейдж