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Balanced Literacy Instruction
Grand Canyon University: RDG 512
May 28, 2015

Abstract
The purpose of this essay is to explain a balanced literacy program and how it will be organized in a classroom. Students need a balanced literacy program to become fluent readers and comprehend text. Two instructional approaches: language and literature based are presented as approaches that would be included in the plan. These approaches will aid in the plan giving a glimpse of how the lessons will be implemented. Explanations of approaches show how they will benefit the program and students learning. These approaches are then compared to components of balanced literacy, based on where they fit in the framework. As a teacher my personal beliefs will be discussed about how I think students learn best through interactive lessons and examples.

Introduction
A Balanced Literacy program helps to create an environment that fosters the necessary language and phonic develop that students need in literacy. Through balanced literacy it will instill in students the necessary reading skills that they need in order to grow into proficient readers. Balanced literacy is made up of five different components that cater to individual needs for students to become lifelong readers. These components are the read aloud, guided reading, shared reading, independent reading, and word study. Researchers of education have stated that successful implementation of a balanced literacy program has to be teacher directed and have activities for students focused on their needs.
In this paper it will address a balanced literacy program that will fit the needs of a second grade group of students. The program will implement the components of reading, writing, and language/word study. While also acknowledging specific instructional approaches that can be used in the program, then ending with a personal take on how students learn best.
Balanced Literacy in the Classroom
The framework of balanced literacy is one that has been developed to fit a standard order of instruction that must take place, for a student to be a fluent and lifelong reader. Teachers are weaving instruction in each component of literacy throughout an uninterrupted block of time (Structuring Your Literacy Classroom: A Balanced Literacy Block (K to 5), n.d.). At least two hours is devoted to this instruction. The framework of balanced literacy consists of a read aloud, shared reading, guided reading, independent reading, word study and writing. This will be the focus for a primary student, a second grade class in particular.
Read Aloud
The read aloud book is approiate for second grades but it may not be on their reading level. The book will pose a challenge for students thinking, but the teacher will be doing the majority of the thinking out loud to model for students. Students are to learn from the teachers think aloud to apply the same strategies to their reading. Students will also be given the opportunity to participate in the read aloud and have to wait until the end, this helps students to stay engaged. They participate in asking questions, making predictions, making connections, etc. Thompkins (2014) states there are many benefits of reading aloud: introducing vocabulary, modeling comprehension strategies, and increasing students’ motivation. A read aloud will benefit struggling readers but it is good for all readers.
Shared Reading
Shared reading is a great component that allows students to get practice before they work independently. The shared reading may be a text that is a little difficult so the teacher will read the text aloud as students follow along. The students will also have the opportunity to participate chiming in on repeated or predicted phrases. The shared reading does not have to be a difficult text it can be a text that is independent to students but is used to cater to their need of phonic development so the teacher provides instruction on decoding words. Or providing them with fluency practice by showing them and practice also using comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading.
Guided Reading
Guided reading is a part of the program where students meet with the teacher in a small group of no more than six. The group is put together based on the needs of the students. The instruction given in this group focuses on teaching decoding and comprehension strategies while reading a text on their instructional level. There is ongoing assessment in these groups monitoring for progression and increasing independent level.
Independent Reading
During this time students take what they have learned, for example decoding and comprehension strategies. They are expected to read silently, with a purpose and at their own pace. The books being read are books that are on their reading level and that they should be able to choose. Allowing students to choose their own book will motivate them to want to read. Thompkins (2014) states independent reading is an important part of a balanced reading program because it is the most authentic part of reading. Independent reading is where students will develop a love for reading and get to know themselves as a reader.
Word Study
Most students at this age struggle greatly with spelling. Word Study allows students to get the necessary practice in with word parts fostering a student that can be fluent in reading but also when it comes to writing spelling words. The teacher will work on building this with students so they can decode and comprehend.
Writing
The teacher has to model writing just like in reading, then guide them in using the skills or process, after that they should be able to do it independently. After reading students can respond to their reading in a reading log.
Instructional Approach #1: Language Based Purpose To determine the meaning of unknown words using the prefix.
Component
This approach uses the component of vocabulary.
Theory base
Students need the exposure to prefixes to become fluent in vocabulary. Learning this skill will allow students to apply this knowledge when reading words they come across and may not know the meaning. They will learn they can look at the beginning of the word and the root word to determine the new word that is derived.
Applications
Students will read sentences created by the teacher. In each sentence students will be able identify words that have a prefix. They will have to state the prefix and then tell the root word. Last the students will need to think of the new that is derived when adding the prefix. Strengths * important part of English grammar * teaching root words will improve comprehension * prefixes will increase comprehension * students use context clues to make educated guess of unknown words

Instructional Approach #2: Literature Based
Purpose
To teach reading with the instructional literacy material being the focus of instruction.
Components
The components of this approach are fluency and comprehension.
Theory base
If books are chosen from student interests they will be engaged. Books read can relate for students to make connections. It is more child centered with the teacher doing the most of the facilitation.
Applications
Thematic units can be centered on books that relate to an idea, topic, or focus.
Strengths
* higher level thinking skills * improve vocabulary * improve reading comprehension * language growth

Components Satisfied by Each Approach
Instructional Approach #1
The first approach focuses on language. It is about students focusing on their vocabulary development. It satisfies the vocabulary component, with students applying strategies from learning to figure out unknown words (Tompkins, 2006).

Instructional Approach #2
The second approach is Literature Based this approach satisfies the component of Literature. Student are exposed to various fiction text that they explore. Through reading these texts students can respond to the literature that they have read showing their comprehension. This component also exposes students to various genres, text structures, and literary features.

Personal Beliefs
I believe that students learn best when the material being presented is interactive and they are given examples of what they are supposed to do. Students need to be engaged at all times in learning it is the best way to ensure that they are following along and hopefully understanding the material. Within balanced literacy a read aloud can be interactive with the students, allowing them to participate in the reading with the teacher providing feedback that goes along with the text. In order to provide that feedback the students have actively listening. Our district follows a balanced literacy approach that they provide us interactive read alouds. The students enjoy them and so do I .I have noticed that the students have a hard time realizing that what ever skill I may be teaching and the strategy is one they should use duting their indpenendent reading. So I am constantly trying to remind them when I am modeling for them what I need them to produce. I also try to provide the students with an example of what I expect of them. I can say a downfall of the example it some time I will have students copy what I do. But after a while and me constantly telling them they cannot copy me, they seem to come around to understanding that they must apply their learning and produce their own work. My district has been producing a balanced literacy program for a couple of years now. The program has shown to provide benefits for the students in their growth as readers.

References
M. (n.d.). Structuring Your Literacy Classroom: A Balanced Literacy Block (K to 5). Retrieved from http://teachingasleadership.org/sites/default/files/Related-Readings/EL_Ch8_2011.pdf
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://education.seattlepi.com/advantages-disadvantages-literaturebased-approach-teaching-reading-3560.html
Structuring Your Literacy Classroom: A Balanced Literacy Block (K to 5). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://teachingasleadership.org/sites/default/files/Related-Readings/EL_Ch8_2011.pdf
Tompkins, G. E. (2006). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education/Merrill/Prentice Hall.…...

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