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Dìaz

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El presente trabajo tiene como objeto el demostrar cual de los factores durante el Porfiriato desencadeno el estallido de la Revolución Mexicana. El autor de “La Revolución Mexicana: una aproximación sociohistórica”, Javier Garciadiego, enlista 4 factores del estallido de la Revolución Mexicana, los cuales son: la espec ana, los cuales son: la especispeciucito desencadeno el estallido de la revoluci asi Wie. rmiento en Mal. los habda ífica conformación sociohistórica del país, la crisis generalizada del Estado porfiriano, el fracaso de una solución pacífica a la sucesión de 1910, las aspiraciones de los grupo medios y populares y el complejo contexto internacional que había en esa época.

Derivado de lo anterior, se demostrara que:

El envejecimiento de Porfirio Díaz y el fracaso de una solución pacífica a la sucesión presidencial de 1910 fue el factor que desencadeno el inicio de la Revolución Mexicana.

La razón por la que Porfirio Díaz decidió que México debía gobernarse creando un régimen fuerte y centralizado basado en torno a su propia persona se debe que él lucho contra los conservadores durante la década de 1860 y contra sus compañeros liberales, Juárez y Lerdo, en la década de 1870. Debido a lo anterior, al quedar electo presidente decidió acabar con las facciones y eliminar las batallas entre los conservadores y liberales, fue así consolido un gobierno basado en la paz y consenso popular, aunque en diversas ocasiones tenía que recurrir a la represión para lograr su cometido. Fue al inicio de su mandato cuando determino que debía cambiar los objetivos del país de “Libertad y soberanía” a “Orden y progreso”.

La primera etapa del Porfiriato consistió en establecer bases solidas para xxx (5). En dicha etapa Díaz se encargo de establecer un equipo de colaboradores y militares de su total confianza para así poder instaurar el poder absoluto, ya que los integrantes de los altos cargos en el gobierno y en la milicia se los debían a él.

En un inicio Díaz trato de ser incluyente con gobernadores y burócratas de diversos grupos, sin embargo, desde un inicio acudió a la represión de aquéllos que se pronunciaban en contra.

Durante el régimen de Díaz prevalecía una clara estabilidad política, económica y social, lo cual se vio reflejado en las reelecciones a favor de Díaz y las falta de competidores sólidos.

La segunda etapa de Díaz resalto por el perfeccionamiento de la estabilidad política y económica, pues se saneo la Hacienda pública, se renegocio la deuda externa, se crearon instituciones financieras modernas, así como de la construcción de obras de infraestructura, vías ferroviarias y líneas telefónicas eficientes.

Díaz logro un consenso en el país, pues desaparecieron las contiendas electorales y la independencia de los poderes legislativo y judicial. La mayor prueba de que en México existía el poder absoluto de Díaz es que no había oposición alguna, no existían partidos políticos, la prensa independiente apenas existía. En consecuencia, hace la propuesta de que no se debe fiar el pueblo mexicano sus destinos en manos del general Díaz y debe de resolverse a representar el papel que le corresponde al nombrar su sucesor.

Los dos principales grupos de apoyo de Díaz eran los científicos, que destacaban en temas de economía y educación, y los que estaban encabezados por Bernardo Reyes, responsable de la modernización y control del ejercito. Los dos subsistían hasta que el problema de la sucesión tomo relevancia.

El régimen de Díaz se caracteriza principalmente por su sistema de alianzas, al inicio del régimen Díaz se esforzó por integrar a su gobierno algunos representantes de los grupos opositores previos al Porfiriato, como eran los conservadores y los liberales. Por otro lado la política mexicana estaba completamente controlada por Díaz y sus allegados “la policía mexicana estaba saturada de fraudes, malversación de fondos y nepotismo; vicios a juicio de los críticos del régimen, pero fuentes de fuerza para los gobernantes porfiristas”. (1) Esta situación solo permitió a un grupo selecto la posibilidad de conseguir puestos en el gobierno, lo que dejó de lado a algunos miembros de clases privilegiadas y a los representantes de otros sectores del país, como era el caso de los indígenas, peones, trabajadores de minas y a otros industriales adinerados del norte, mismos que más tarde se revelarían contra esta situación. Las consecuencia más importantes que despertó dicha situación fue la necesidad de una democracia en la que pudieran participar activamente todos los sectores del país y no solo una clase privilegiada.

La situación en el norte era distinta a la del resto del país, primero el norte estando pegado a la frontera con Estados Unidos conocía situaciones distintas de trabajo y salarios. Del mismo modo los industriales del norte adquirieron fuerza abasteciendo de servicios tanto a los estados colindantes del sur de E.U. como a otros estados del norte de México. Esta situación representó dos tipos distintos de oposición; la primera fue el caso de los mismos empresarios, los cuales se quejaban de que Díaz favorecía más la inversión extranjera sobre la local y los peones de las haciendas que, conociendo nuevas posibilidades de trabajo se quejaban sobre las oportunidades americanas contra las mexicanas que eran mucho mas limitadas, aún cuando estos ganaban mejores sueldos y tenían mejores situaciones de negociación contra los peones de los estados del sur.
En el sur la situación agraria era el principal tema de reclamos. El reparto de tierras empeoraba la situación de los indígenas, ya que estos perdían sus tierras mientras que grandes latifundistas adquirían más y más tierras, lo cual impedía que la fuente de riqueza se repartía al pueblo. Esta situación de tensión generaba problemas de guerrillas indígenas que se levantaban en contra de los hacendados y que eran reprimidas atrozmente por el régimen de Díaz, quien no dudaba en usar la fuerza para callar a cualquier adversario.

La economía del país
El régimen de Díaz se caracterizaba por una economía de intervencionismo por parte del estado, cuando Díaz creía que se necesitaba alguna cosa en específico para facilitar la vida económica de las élites, modificaba tanto la situación legal como la política para facilitar las vías de crecimiento a ciertas clases privilegiadas. Aunque esta situación fomento el crecimiento económico del país, creó a su vez a una nueva clase social: la clase media, esto empeoró la situación política ya que esta nueva clase quería tener acceso al control del régimen para poder manifestar sus pensamientos.

Por otro lado, empeoró la situación obreros en las fábricas y los peones en las haciendas debido al crecimiento económico del país, pues hubo un gran expansionismo en la industria lo que aumento a su vez la demanda de mano de obra, pero siguiendo el principio de maximizar la utilidad se pagaban pobres sueldos mientras que el dueño aumentaba sus ganancias constantemente. Esto genero un choque constante de clases obreras contra industriales adinerados, mismo que fue denunciado por algunos intelectuales de la época.

Opositores

Los hermanos Flores Magón durante el régimen de Díaz denunciaban la constante corrupción de los poderes Legislativo y Judicial. Así como también luchaban por eliminar la explotación obrera. En 1900 se funda el periódico Regeneración medio que utilizaron los hermanos para expresar sus ideales. En los primeros años del periódico las críticas se enfocaban principalmente contra individuos que abusan de su poder. Conforme se agravo la situación del país, como consecuencia de la larga duración del régimen de Díaz, los hermanos Flores Magón empezaron a formalizar sus criticas y a hacer crear propuestas más concretas sobre lo que necesita el país para ser más justo y democrático.

Dentro de las principales críticas de la época cercana a la Revolución sobresalen:
Los fuertes medios de represión que Díaz usaba en contra a las criticas a su régimen: “El derecho de rebelión penetra con las conciencias, el descontento crece, el malestar se hace insoportable, la protesta estalla al fin y se inflama el ambiente”. (2)

A su vez
Asi mismo
Por una partes
Por otra parter

Argumentos

Los argumentos que se utilizaran para verificar que la hipótesis antes mencionada es correcta será por un lado comprobar que a partir de la entrevista de Díaz-Creelman el país vivió un periodo de incertidumbre y movilización de distintos grupos de interés para conseguir simpatizantes que los apoyaran en las elecciones. Por otro lado, se tomará como argumento el que a partir del nombramiento de vicepresidente, por parte de Díaz, en favor de Ramón Corral, miembro del grupo los científicos, los demás opositores iniciaron ataques estratégicos para desacreditar el trabajo de los científicos y así poder tener posibilidad de ganar las elecciones.

Entrevista Díaz-Creelman

La entrevista que Porfirio Díaz otorgo a James Creelman es sin duda el evento que llevo a los grupos opositores a tomar acciones más agresivas con el fin lograr captar el poder presidencial. Es en dicha entrevista cuando Díaz, sin previo aviso, después de 27 años en el poder, declara que no buscará la reelección en 1910, ya que el pueblo mexicano estaba preparado para convertirse en un país democrático por lo que anunció que aceptaría la formación de partidos políticos opositores. Después de dicha entrevista la sucesión presidencial toma más relevancia, ya que el destino del país era incierto, por lo que empezaron a surgir diversos cuestionamientos como si ¿sería cierto que Díaz dejaría el poder?, ¿quién lo sucedería?, ¿por qué fue concedida la entrvista?, ¿qué era lo que se deseaba comunicar con dicha entrevista? y ¿cuáles fueron los efectos que tuvo?

Dicha entrevista fue publicada en marzo de 1908 en la revista Pearson’s, en Estados Unidos de Norteamérica, bajo el título “Presidente Díaz, héroe de las Américas” y fue traducida al español y publicada por el periódico El Imparcial, tiempo después.

“ME RETIRARÉ AL CONCLUIR ESTE PERIODO CONSTITUCIONAL Y NO ACEPTARÉ OTRO” declaró Díaz.

En un inicio la gran pregunta era ¿por qué se llevo a cabo la entrevista?. Muchos argumentaban que era un capricho de Díaz por darse a conocer como el presidente que dio a México paz y estabilidad, otros pensaban que no era por casualidad sino que Estados Unidos lo planeo en un afán por investigar cuales eran los planes del presidente. Hay varios críticos que opinan que dichas declaraciones fueron un intento de Díaz por averiguar quien de sus colaboradores seguía siendo leal a él.

Por su parte Díaz aprovecho la ocasión, pues quería mandar mensajes claros tanto al interior como al exterior del país, el primer objetivo era informar gozaba de perfecta salud a sus casi 80 años y que podía seguir perfectamente al mando del país, el segundo objetivo era transmitir que México podía y seguía siendo un país solido para las inversiones de países extranjeros como Estados Unidos.

Durante la entrevista Díaz se dio a la tarea de justificar sus más de 5 reelecciones ante Estados Unidos, pues ellos únicamente permitían 2. La manera en la que Díaz justifica sus reelecciones es argumentando que debido a la historia y condiciones del país la única forma era organizar un gobierno como el suyo, pues en esa época era la única solución a los problemas que enfrentaba la recién nacida Republica Mexicana.

Lo más importante de la entrevista fue cuando Díaz declaro que no se reelegiría en las próximas elecciones y que estaba dispuesto a darle la bienvenida a cualquier partido y candidato de oposición, pues el país ya tenia la madurez suficiente para gobernarse a través de la democracia.

“Es un error suponer que el futuro de la democracia en México ha sido puesto en peligro por la prolongada permanencia en el poder de un solo presidente. Puedo con toda sinceridad decir que el servicio no ha corrompido mis ideales político”

Lo que significaba que el proceso de democratización del país había terminado y por fin el país estaba listo para realizar elecciones justas y transparentes.

Las consecuencias de dicha entrevista fue que su gabinete y allegados se alarmará, pues Díaz había dado a entender que estaba dispuesto a permitir la candidatura de cualquier político y no la sucesión no se daría por medio del vicepresidente como se había pensado.

Nombramiento de Ramón Corral como vicepresidente de México

Bibliografía

(2) “Regeneración”. Hermanos Flores Magón 1900-1910
“Programa del Partido Liberal Mexicano” Presidente, Ricardo Flores Magón.- Vicepresidente, Juan Sarabia.- Secretario, Antonio I. Villarreal.- Tesorero, Enrique Flores Magón.- 1er. Vocal, Prof. Librado Rivera.- 2º. Vocal, Manuel Sarabia.- 1906
(1) “La revolución Mexicana. Del Porfiriato al nuevo régimen constitucional”. Alan Knight. 1996
“Fin del régimen y democracia incipiente. México hacia el siglo XXI”. Lorenzo Meyer. 1998
“México más allá del neoliberalismo. Opciones dentro del cambio global”. José Luis Calva. 2000…...

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