Premium Essay

“Developing and Measuring the Performance of Portfolio Based on Risk and Return”

In: Other Topics

Submitted By bhattadsneha
Words 18558
Pages 75
INDUSTRY PROFILE
Journey of Indian stock market
Indian Stock Markets are one of the oldest in Asia. Its history dates back to nearly 200 years ago. The earliest records of security dealings in India are meager and obscure. The East India Company was the dominant institution in those days and business in its loan securities used to be transacted towards the close of the eighteenth century.
By 1830's business on corporate stocks and shares in Bank and Cotton presses took place in Bombay. Though the trading list was broader in 1839, there were only half a dozen brokers recognized by banks and merchants during 1840 and 1850.
The 1850's witnessed a rapid development of commercial enterprise and brokerage business attracted many men into the field and by 1860 the number of brokers increased into 60.In 1860-61 the American Civil War broke out and cotton supply from United States of Europe was stopped; thus, the 'Share Mania' in India begun. The number of brokers increased to about 200 to 250.
However, at the end of the American Civil War, in 1865, a disastrous slump began (for example, Bank of Bombay Share which had touched Rs 2850 could only be sold at Rs. 87). At the end of the American Civil War, the brokers who thrived out of Civil War in 1874, found a place in a street (now appropriately called as Dalal Street) where they would conveniently assemble and transact business. In 1887, they formally established in Bombay, the "Native Share and Stock Brokers' Association" (which is alternatively known as "The Stock Exchange "). In 1895, the Stock Exchange acquired a premise in the same street and it was inaugurated in 1899. Thus, the Stock Exchange at Bombay was consolidated.

COMPANY PROFILE
KARVY, is a premier integrated financial services provider, and ranked among the top five in the country in all its business segments, services over 16 million individual…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Risk and Return

...Risk and return will be very central terms in our analysis and it is essential that the reader clearly understands the meaning of each term and how assets with different payout structures can be compared. General utility theory suggests that the average investor is risk averse. Given the same expected return of two assets with different risks, he would prefer the one with less risk. (This assumption may not be perfectly true for all individuals in all situations, but for the investor community as a whole it is probably true). For an asset with uncertain cash flows and payoffs, which are normally distributed, the mean of the distribution will be the expected return while the standard deviation forms some kind of “risk”. Choosing the “less risky” asset therefore comes down to choosing the asset with the lowest standard deviation in its payout distribution. An investor could also approach the problem from the other direction, choosing among assets with the same risk and then choose the asset with the highest expected return. Risk is usually defined as the volatility of returns, measured by standard deviation. The variance of a portfolio depends not only on the individual variances of the as- sets, but also on the co-variances between the components of the portfolio. As an extreme example, a portfolio consisting of two securities – a long position in a stock and with an appropriately chosen position in a put option on the same stock – will have......

Words: 1289 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Risk and Returns

...RISK –RETURN TRADE -OFF ON THE NIGERIAN STOCK EXCHANGE OLOWE, OLUSEGUN BANKING AND FINANCE DEPARTMENT COVENANT UNIVERSITY OTA. NIGERIA E-mail: oreoba2000@yahoo.com oreoba2000@gmail.com 1 ABSTRACT Expected excess returns on bonds and stocks, real interest rates, and risk shift over time in predictable ways. Furthermore, these shifts tend to persist for long period. Changes in investment opportunities can alter the risk-return trade-off of bonds, stocks, and cash across investment horizons, thus creating a term structure of the risk-return trade-off. This term structure can be extracted from a parsimonious model of return dynamics, which was illustrated with data from the stock market in Nigeria using the VAR model in the light of the reforms in the financial services sector coupled with the stock market crash and the global financial crisis. Using annual returns over the period of 1981 to 2008, volatility persistence, asymmetric properties and riskreturn relationship are investigated for the Nigerian stock market visà-vis the calendar effects on stock market performances. The degree of volatility persistence and leverage effect supporting the work of Nelson (1991) was visible in the relationship between value index of stocks, market capitalization and the volume of transactions. Key words: Calendar effect, Volatility, Stock market, Financial Reforms, Global Financial crisis, Volatility persistence, VAR, Risk-return tradeoff 2 INTRODUCTION The major......

Words: 6688 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Assessing the Risk, Return and Efficiency of Banks’ Loans Portfolios

...Assessing the risk, return and efficiency of banks’ loans portfolios ∗ Javier Menc´ ıa Bank of Spain June 2008 Preliminary and Incomplete Abstract This paper develops a dynamic model to assess the risk and profitability of loans portfolios. I obtain their risk premia and derive the risk-neutral measure for an exponentially affine stochastic discount factor. I employ mean-variance analysis with a VaR constraint to assess efficiency. Then I compare Spanish institutions in an empirical application, where small institutions seem to be less efficient than large ones on aggregate terms, while commercial and savings banks perform better on their respective traditional markets. Finally, I find increasing discrepancies between riskneutral and actual default probabilities since June 2007 and discuss their possible sources. Keywords: Credit risk, Probability of default, Asset Pricing, Mean-Variance allocation, Stochastic Discount Factor, Value at Risk. JEL: G21, G12, G11, C32, D81, G28. This paper is the sole responsibility of its author. The views represented here do not necessarily reflect those of the Bank of Spain. Thanks are due to Alfredo Mart´ for his valuable suggestions as well as for ın, help with the interest rate database. Of course, the usual caveat applies. Address for correspondence: Alcal´ 48, E-28014 Madrid, Spain, tel: +34 91 338 5414, fax: +34 91 338 6102. a ∗ 1 Introduction Standard capital market theory states that there is a risk-return tradeoff in equilib- ...

Words: 11804 - Pages: 48

Premium Essay

Risk and Return

...Period Return HPR=(Ending price-Beginning price+Dividend during period one)/(Beginning price)=(P_1-P_0+D_1)/P_0 Dividend Yield: % return from dividends Expected Return and Standard Deviation E(r)=∑_s▒〖p_s r_s 〗 σ=√(∑_s▒〖p_s (r_s-E(r))〗^2 ) Expected end-of-year value of the investment =Dividend+Ending Price Arithmetic and Geometric Averages Arithmetic Mean (AM) =(∑▒HPR)/N Better predictor of future performance Geometric Mean (GM) = π(1+HPR) )^(1/N)-1 Better measure of past performance GM < AM Sharpe Ratio Sharpe Ratio for Portfolios =(Excess Return)/(SD of Excess Return)=(R_i-R_f)/(σ(R_i-R_f)) Measure the attraction of an investment portfolio by comparing its reward (risk premium) and risk (SD) Excess return per unit of risk Reward-to-variability (volatility) ratio Historical Returns on Risky Portfolios Asset classes that provide higher return are more risky Return: Small Stocks > Large Stocks > Bonds > Bills Risk: Small Stocks > Large Stocks > Bonds > Bills Risk Premium Extra reward (returns) for bearing the risk of investing in equities, rather than in low risk investments, such as bills or bonds Risk Premium=E(r)-r_f Asset Allocation: Four Step Process Step 1: Assessing Risk Tolerance Step 2: Measuring Portfolio Risk and Return Step 3: Modeling Investment Options Step 4: Optimal Asset Allocation Step 1: Assessing Risk Tolerance Dominated Assets Easy to remove from consideration Always choose higher risk premium...

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Risk and Return

...Exercises E8-1. Total annual return Answer: ($0 $12,000 $10,000) $10,000 $2,000 $10,000 20% Logistics, Inc. doubled the annual rate of return predicted by the analyst. The negative net income is irrelevant to the problem. E8-2. Expected return Answer: Analyst 1 2 3 4 Total Probability 0.35 0.05 0.20 0.40 1.00 Return 5% 5% 10% 3% Expected return Weighted Value 1.75% 0.25% 2.0% 1.2% 4.70% E8-3. Comparing the risk of two investments Answer: CV1 0.10 0.15 0.6667 CV2 0.05 0.12 0.4167 Based solely on standard deviations, Investment 2 has lower risk than Investment 1. Based on coefficients of variation, Investment 2 is still less risky than Investment 1. Since the two investments have different expected returns, using the coefficient of variation to assess risk is better than simply comparing standard deviations because the coefficient of variation considers the relative size of the expected returns of each investment. E8-4. Computing the expected return of a portfolio Answer: rp (0.45 0.038) (0.4 0.123) (0.15 0.174) (0.0171) (0.0492) (0.0261 0.0924 9.24% The portfolio is expected to have a return of approximately 9.2%. E8-5. Calculating a portfolio beta Answer: Beta (0.20 1.15) (0.10 0.85) (0.15 1.60) (0.20 1.35) (0.35 1.85) 0.2300 0.0850 0.2400 0.2700 0.6475 1.4725 E8-6. Calculating the required rate of return Answer: a. Required return 0.05 1.8 (0.10 0.05) 0.05 0.09 0.14 b. Required return 0.05 1.8 (0.13 0.05) 0.05 0.144 0.194 c. Although the risk-free rate does......

Words: 5293 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Risk and Rate of Return

...Risk and Return Concepts Prepared by: JQY Risk and Return Concepts • Measures of risk and returns • Portfolio risk and returns • CAPM Return – what is earned on an investment: the sum of income and capital gains generated by an investment. Risk – possibility of loss; the uncertainty that the anticipated return will not be achieved. Risk and Return? If you have PHP 1,000,000, will you invest in: 5% 20% Risk and Return General Rule of Thumb: More Risk = More Returns Less Risk = Less Returns It depends on the investor: Risk Seeking – prefers high risk investments Risk Neutral – willing to take on moderate risk Risk Averse – conservative, unwilling to take on high risk investments unless the returns justify and compensates for the high risk taken. Relative Risk & Returns of Asset Classes Source: http://www.weblivepro.com/articles/cpp/cppinfo.aspx Measures of Returns • Historical Returns ▫ Holding Period Return ▫ Alternative Measures  Arithmetic Mean  Geometric Mean  Harmonic Mean • Expected Returns Measuring Historical Returns • Holding Period Return ▫ Total return on an asset or portfolio over the period during which it was held ▫ HPR = MV1 – MV0 + D MV0 MV1 = market value, end MV0 = market value, beginning D = cumulative cash distributions (at the end of period) • Annualized HPR ▫ (1 + HPR) ^ 1/n – 1 Measuring Historical Returns • Example: Mr. A bought an asset in 2005 for P100. He......

Words: 4013 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Portfolio Performance

...PORTFOLIO PERFORMANCE EVALUATION- LITERATURE REVIEW Deepa Chandrashekar Table of Contents 1. Introduction........................................................................................................................................... 2 2. Portfolio Returns Calculation................................................................................................................ 4 2.1. 2.2. Value weighted rate of return........................................................................................................ 6 2.3. 3. Time weighted rate of return......................................................................................................... 5 Internal rate of return .................................................................................................................... 6 Literature Review.................................................................................................................................. 7 3.1. Sharpe ratio ................................................................................................................................... 9 3.2. Sortino ratio ................................................................................................................................10 3.3. Treynor ratio ...............................................................................................................................12 3.4. Jensen......

Words: 5335 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Risk and Return

...Investment and Portfolio Management: Risk and Return Marvin Brown is a savvy investor who is always looking for a sound company to include in his portfolio of stocks and bonds. Being somewhat risk-averse, his main objective is to buy stock in firms that are mature and well-established in their respective industries. Wal-Mart is one of the stocks Marv is currently considering for inclusion in his portfolio. Wal-Mart has four major areas of business: traditional Wal-Mart discount stores, Supercenters, Sam's Clubs, and international operations. Although Wal-Mart was established over 50 years ago, it continues to achieve growth through expansion. The Supercenter concept, which combines groceries and general merchandise, is extreme success as 75 new Supercenters were opened last year alone. Another 95 will be opening over the next two years. Sam's clubs have also seen success as 99 Pace stores (Pace is one of Sam's former Competitors) were converted to Sam's stores in 1995. In addition to taking over competitor stores, Sam's also opened 22 new stores of its own. Internationally, the picture is equally as rosy. In Canada, 122 former Woolco stores were converted to Wal-Mart discount stores. Expansion has reached Mexico and Hong Kong as well, as 24 Clubs and Supercenters and 3 "Value Clubs" were established, respectively. Wal-Mart plans to continue its reign as the world's largest retailer through expansion by developing the previously discussed 95 Wal-Mart discount stores, 12 new......

Words: 614 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Judge the Risk by Portfolio

...Judge the Risk by Portfolio When the investors put their money into the stock market, it means that they must take the risk of the stock market, because risk is one of the natural qualities of the stock market. One company easy to get a poor performance and its stocks will go down. Therefore, there will be no way to complete avoid risk, but judge it. In finance, risk is best judged in a portfolio context. Because the possibility that many companies gets serious performances, and their stock price go down at the same time is lower than for only one company. This essay will discuss that why the portfolio context is the best way to judge the risk in the finance market. The first part will introduce the basic theories for portfolios. The methods of measuring risks and value of the portfolio will be explained in the second part to demonstrate that why it is better select portfolios. The third part will give the example of family groupings on performance of portfolio selection in the Hong Kong stock market. The conclusion will be given at the end of the essay. Firstly, the theory of portfolio and the five suppositions of portfolio selection need to be explained before the following discussion of the value of portfolios. The article ‘Portfolio Selection’, which was issued on Journal of Finance in 1952 and the book ‘Portfolio Selection: Efficient Diversification of Investments’ which was published in 1959 was known as the opening if the modern portfolio theory. The author of......

Words: 1592 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Developing a Log Based Motivation Measuring Tool

...Developing a Log-based Motivation Measuring Tool Arnon Hershkovitz and Rafi Nachmias1 {arnonher, nachmias}@post.tau.ac.il 1 Knowledge Technology Lab, School of Education, Tel Aviv University, Israel Abstract. The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework and a tool for measuring motivation of online learners. The study was carried out in three phases, the first of which was the construction of a framework, based on an extensive literature review. Phase two consisted of identifying variables computable from log file data, associate with the framework and compatible with previous empirical research. For this purpose, an empirical study was designed and a specific learning environment focusing on vocabulary for adults was chosen. Log files of a large population (N=2,162) were collected and variables were identified using Learnograms, a visual representation of learning variables over time. This phase resulted in seven explicitly defined variables, along with a mechanism to calculate them from the raw log files. The third phase included preprocessing of the dataset (reducing it to 674 cases) and application of hierarchical clustering of the variables. This phase resulted in three clusters interpreted to fit the three dimensions of motivation defined in the framework. A discussion of this study and further research is provided. 1 Introduction Assessment of learners' motivation in online environments has been a challenge for......

Words: 2879 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Understanding Concepts Return Stock, Risks, Portfolio, Beta, Wacc

...Question 1. Identify the components of a stock's realized return. The two main components of a realized return or two sources are the dividend and the change of price during the period, in other words if you buy stock for x amount of money, at a later time all the money that you have received is your return realized and is the real cash flow of the stock realized return ,also in a different view on the realized return components , Problem ,Plan Execute ,Evaluate . Question 2 Contrast systematic and unsystematic risk. On this is a very simple meaning a stock is purchase some of this are well plan in the monetary gain to have during a period of time and is systematically selected and planed of, what is expected and the risk that will balance a common risk that is acceptable, on the other hand the unsystematic risk it fluctuate more and its return as well too and can not be accurately calculated only to a point that the risk could be mayor then the systematically. UNDERSTANDING CONCEPTS STOCKS RISK 4 Question 3 Explain why the total risk of a portfolio is not simply equal to the weighted average of the risks of securities in the portfolio. On this I will explain with an example you have two groups of stock that 40% is firm A and 60% is B both have different return to a complete total of 100% in a relation to wish one is 60 %......

Words: 545 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Risk and Return

...Return, Risk and The Security Market Line - An Introduction to Risk and Return Whether it is investing, driving or just walking down the street, everyone exposes themselves to risk. Your personality and lifestyle play a big role in how much risk you are comfortably able to take on. If you invest in stocks and have trouble sleeping at night, you are probably taking on too much risk. (For more insight, see A Guide to Portfolio Construction.) Risk is defined as the chance that an investment's actual return will be different than expected. This includes the possibility of losing some or all of the original investment. Those of us who work hard for every penny we earn have a hard time parting with money. Therefore, people with less disposable income tend to be, by necessity, more risk averse. On the other end of the spectrum, day traders feel that if they aren't making dozens of trades a day, there is a problem. These people are risk lovers. When investing in stocks, bonds or any other investment instrument, there is a lot more risk than you'd think. In this section, we'll take a look at the different kind of risks that often threaten investors' returns, ways of measuring and calculating risk, and methods for managing risk. Expected Return, Variance and Standard Deviation of a Portfolio Expected return is calculated as the weighted average of the likely profits of the assets in the portfolio, weighted by the likely profits of each asset class. Expected return is......

Words: 10559 - Pages: 43

Premium Essay

Risk and Return

...Chapter 5 Risk and Return 5.1 RATES OF RETURN McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Learning objectives  Use data on the past performance of stocks and bonds to characterize the risk and return features of these investments  Determine the expected return and risk of portfolios that are constructed by combining risky assets with risk-free investment in Treasury bills  Evaluate the performance of a passive strategy McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Holding Period Return  The holding period return (HPR)(보유기간수익률)  Depends on the increase (or decrease) in the price of the share over the investment period as well as on any dividend income.  Rate of return over a given investment period McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved. Example 5.1  Suppose you are considering investing some of your money, now all invested in a bank account, in a stock market index fund. The price of a share in the fund is currently $100, and your time horizon is one year. You expect the cash dividend during the year to be $4, so your expected dividend yield is 4%.  Your HPR will depend on the price one year from now. Suppose your best guess is that it will be $110 per share.  The your capital gain will be $10 (110-100), so your capital gains yield is $10/$100=.10 or 10%. The total holding period rate of return is the sum of the......

Words: 3506 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Risk and Return

...RISK AND RETURN Risk is existing in every business decision. For Eg: Selection of an asset for production department, developing a new product etc., Therefore decision maker has to asses the risk and return before taking any financial decision. To do so finance manager must learn to assess risk and return. Risk can be measured in different ways. Before going to learn the computation and return it is require understanding the followings: 1. Cash Flows: financial assets are expected to generate cash flows and risk of Financial assets assessed in terms of the variations of its expected cash inflows. 2. Risk can be measured either on stand alone basis or in a portfolio context 3. Classification of risk: the risk of assets is divided into two parts. a. Diversifiable Risk b. Market Risk. Diversifiable risk is a company’s’ specific risk and can be completely eliminated through diversification. On the other hand market risk arises from market movements and which cannot be eliminated through diversification. 4. Investors are Risk Averse: (unwilling/opposed) Generally investors are risk averse. It does not mean that investors do not buy risk assets, they buy risk assets, when they promise extra return for bearing extra risk. Risky investments provide relatively high return. Risk: Risk is the chance of financi8al loss or the variability of returns associated with a given assets. Assets that are having higher chances of loss ar viewed as more......

Words: 496 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Balancing Risk and Return in a Customer Portfolio

...D. Hutt, & Beth A. Walker Balancing Risk and Return in a Customer Portfolio Marketing managers can increase shareholder value by structuring a customer portfolio to reduce the vulnerability and volatility of cash flows. This article demonstrates how financial portfolio theory provides an organizing framework for (1) diagnosing the variability in a customer portfolio, (2) assessing the complementarity/similarity of market segments, (3) exploring market segment weights in an optimized portfolio, and (4) isolating the reward on variability that individual customers or segments provide. Using a seven-year series of customer data from a large business-to-business firm, the authors demonstrate how market segments can be characterized in terms of risk and return. Next, they identify the firm’s efficient portfolio and test it against (1) its current portfolio and (2) a hypothetical profit maximization portfolio. Then, using forward- and back-testing, the authors show that the efficient portfolio has consistently lower variability than the existing customer mix and the profit maximization portfolio. The authors provide guidelines for incorporating a risk overlay into established customer management frameworks. The approach is especially well suited for business-to-business firms that serve market segments drawn from diverse sectors of the economy. Keywords: customer portfolio management, market-based assets, financial portfolio theory, return on marketing, market......

Words: 14000 - Pages: 56

СКАЧАТЬ: / подробнее | Protoplasmina Forforil 100ml trattamento antiforfora | General Discussions