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Quantitative determination of components in solution containing
Sodium Hydroxide, Sodium Carbonate, and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Two of these three components can exist in an appreciable amount in any solution because reaction with acids (neutralisation titration) will eliminate the third. The analysis of such mixtures can be realised at any technique:
1) direct titration (Warder’s method) or
2) back-titration (Winkler’s method).
The analysis of such mixtures requires two titrations: one with an alkaline-range indicator, such as phenolphthalein, and the other with an acid-range indicator, such as methylorange.

1. Direct titration the mixture of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate The composition of the solution can be deduced from the relative volumes of acid needed to titrate equal volumes of the sample. Titration with hydrochloric acid to a phenolphthalein end point (Vphth): NaOH + HCl = NaCl + H2O
Na2CO3 + HCl = NaHCO3 + NaCl Titration with hydrochloric acid to a methyl orange end point (Vmo): NaHCO3 + HCl = NaCl + H2O + CO2 Components in sample Relationship between Vphth and Vmo in the titration of an equal volume of sample
NaOH Vphth = Vmo
Na2CO3 Vphth = 1/2Vmo
NaOH + Na2CO3 Vphth > 1/2Vmo

1. Load a burette with 0,1 N hydrochloric acid solution.
2. To conical flask pour in 10 ml aliquot of sample (VS).
3. Introduce 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein solution, and titrate with 0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution until the solution lost the red colour. Read the burette mark (Vphth).
4. To conical flask pour in 10 ml aliquot of sample (VS).
5. Introduce 2-3 drops of methyl orange solution, and titrate with 0,1 N hydrochloric acid solution until the solution just begin to change colour from yellow to red. Read the burette mark (Vmo).
6. Repeat titration also two times. Calculate the…...

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