Compare and Contrast the Theories of Piaget and Vygosky

In: Business and Management

Submitted By tiffanyabe
Words 643
Pages 3
Compare and Contrast the Theories of Piaget and Vygosky
Tiffany AbelleraBlas
BSHS/342
February 3, 2013
Dr. Branch

Compare and Contrast the Theories of Piaget and Vygosky
In this essay I will be comparing and contrasting the differences between two theorist, Jean Piaget (1896-1980) and Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934). Though both agreed that children’s cognitive development took place in stages. However they were distinguished by different styles of thinking. Piaget felt that children progressed in four different stages of cognitive development, This theory is know as Piaget’s Stage Theory because it deals with four stages of development, which are sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. As for Vygotsky, he is most often associated with the social constructivist theory and came into three general claims: culture, language, and Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) (Berk, 2010).
Piaget was the first to reveal that children reason and think differently at different periods in their lives. He said, “Children’s thinking is rigid, limited to one aspect of a situation at a time, and strongly influenced by the way things appear at the moment.” (Berk, 2010) According to his four stages, in the first stage sensorimotor, which occurs from birth to the age of two is the time in an infant’s life when the child basically deals with what is presented to him or her. Then learn about physical objects and are concerned with motor skills and the consequences of some of their actions. During this stage children will learn the concept of object permanence. This is where an object will continue to exist even if it is out of sight.
In the preoperational stage which last from two to seven years. In this stage it comes possible to carry on a conversation with a child and they also learn to count and use the concept of numbers. This stage is divided into…...

Similar Documents

Compare and Contrast Two or More Theories of Schizophrenia.

...Compare and contrast two or more theories of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia, a Greek word meaning “split brain”, was coined by Eugen Bleuler in 1908 to describe a type of dementia praecox which emphasizes a break from reality and disintegration between emotions, thought and actions. In contemporary term, schizophrenia is a mental disorder with impairments in the perception, psychomotor behaviour and affect; manifested as a syndrome characterized by two categories of symptoms, positive (hallucinations, delusions and disorganization) and negative (social withdrawal, apathy, poverty of speech), expressed variably in the sufferers (Crow, 1980; Andreasen, 1995). Although the underlying mechanism of schizophrenia remains somewhat elusive, theories of the causation of schizophrenia based on evidence at different levels, ranging from biochemical, neurodevelopmental, cognitive to social, have been proposed. In this essay, I will focus on two of the most prominent theories, Dopamine hypothesis and neurodevelopmental theory. I will first outline the main body and the evidence in support of the theories, and then compare the theories on the basis of its explanation of the development and associated symptoms of schizophrenia, and corresponding limitations. Here, I would like to argue that despite the differences between the two theories, they are not mutually exclusive; contrarily, they can complement each other to give a better picture of the causation of Schizophrenia. Dopamine......

Words: 1787 - Pages: 8

Describe, Compare and Contrast One Process and One Content Theory of Motivation.

...Describe, compare and contrast one process and one content theory of motivation. Evaluate hoe appropriate they are for organisations today. This essay’s aim is to analyse and establish an understanding of various motivation theories and their possible application within organisations. Along with implementing, the information related to motivation, this essay would demonstrate the importance of motivation and it is necessary for organisations to motivate their employees effectively Motivation derives from the Latin word “movere” which means to move. Luthans (1998) defines motivation as “a process which begins with physiological or psychological need or deficiency which triggers behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or an incentive“. In other words, an individual must feel a need to an extent that will drive them to satisfying it. Some psychologists and business people define motivation as the thing that makes people do something, which usually they will not do. Motivation is a fundamental psychological approach where the management process of inducing employee’s behaviour established on the evidence of what causes people to click (Luthans, 1998). Theories of motivation presume that motivational behaviour happens due to work fulfils their psychological needs or because there appears to be a link between effort and performance and performance and value of outcomes (R. Fincham and. Rhodes 2009). There are two types of motivational theories: content theories, which......

Words: 2225 - Pages: 9

Compare and Contrast Select Leadership Theories

...Compare and Contrast of Select Leadership Models Leadership comes in different forms and in different aspects of life from private business to government entities (Wren, 1995, p. 5). The models of leadership used are dependent upon the individual attributes of the leaders, for example traits, values, self-identity, skills, and competencies (Yukl, 2013, p. 136). A close look at select leadership models and how they compare and contrast with each other provides insight into the types of leadership that might be employed within organizations as they face various leadership issues and challenges. In this paper, we will review four leadership models: charismatic, servant, situational, and transformational. A separate discussion describing similarities and differences between the models as they apply. As similarities and differences are identified, we will discuss how contemporary leadership issues and challenges are addressed within the scope of each leadership model. Leadership Models Charismatic Leadership A charismatic leader has three key dimensions that Weber (1968) identified as concepts of charisma that include vision or mission, extraordinary or exceptional qualities, and recognition (as cited in Avolio and Yammarino, 2013, p. 167). Transformational leadership closely resembles charismatic leadership as both are vision related and empowering; however the main difference deals with the expectations set by the leader. Charismatic leaders typically set unrealistic......

Words: 1456 - Pages: 6

Biblical Counseling: Compare and Contrast Secular Counseling Theories

...Counseling: Compare and Contrast Secular Counseling Theories 1 The definition of counseling in Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary says “professional guidance of the individual by utilizing psychological methods especially in collecting case history data, using various techniques of the personal interview, and testing interests and aptitudes” (counseling. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster. Retrieved November 24, 2013, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/counseling ). Each person was brought into this world with brokenness, temptations and sin. We are all a work in progress and it takes daily reliance on Christ to overcome our challenges. However, we can trust that “being confident of this, that he who began a good work in you will carry it on to completion until the day of Christ Jesus.” (Phil 1:6) When someone seeks out counseling it’s usually for help in dealing with pain, hurt, depression, or seeking counsel about situations in their life that need to be addressed. The intent of this paper is to compare and contrast the parallel between Dr. Larry Crabb’s biblical model of teaching in Christian counseling theories with scientific proven methods to counsel and treat individuals with these secular counseling models Cognitive- Behavior Therapy (CBT), Rogers’ Client-Centered Therapy (RCCT), and Ellis’s Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT). Goal of Christian Counseling When looking at the accepted counseling standards, theories, and......

Words: 1466 - Pages: 6

Compare and Contrast Leadership Theories

...Two Leadership Theories-Compare/Contrast Leaders within any organization will have the daunting task of discovering what motivates their team members and then applying these techniques to each employee. This is the task of developing a leadership theory perspective based on the multidude of current theories reviewed in the literature. Some managers may select a theory based on the overall makeup of each employee and some will apply one theory to all team members. For the purpose of this blog, two leadership theories will be explored in four sections with each section representing a different topic of discussion. All four sections will be submitted to Dr. Shirley Johnson for MGT5010. The two theories to be examined in this first section are Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory and Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory is predicated on five basic human needs that motivate human behavior including physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, and self-actualization (Sadri & Bowen, 2011). Maslow believed that these needs are hierarchical in nature and one cannot advance through the levels unless the current need is met. For example, if a hungry person cannot meet the basic need for sustenance, then that person cannot advance to the need for safety. In terms of motivating employees, Sadri and Bower (2011) reported that employees will feel motivated if there exists direction, intensity, and persistence within the......

Words: 524 - Pages: 3

Compare and Contrast

...Critical Thinking: Compare and Contrast Latrenda Suggs RSC 801, Section L11 Professor Barker Capitol College Abstract The constructs of this paper will compare and contrast the various definitions of critical thinking. Many of the scholarly articles that I have researched for this paper provide insight of various reasoning as to the ideas of what critical thinking means. Although the wording is very different for each definition they seem to overlap each of in a sense. Some of the researchers of these articles read as though they took a deeper reflection of what critical thinking means. Critical thinking is very important for people all of ages. Critical thinking is detrimental to a student’s success. Introduction Critical thinking is essential for students and people in everyday life. Critical thinking skills are what characterizes’ the way a person thinks and learn. Critical thinking is where ideas are formed. Many researchers interpret critical thinking in different ways. Critical thinking can be used in every field such as engineering, teaching, nursing and business. Some people don’t understand truly what critical thinking mean and how to access their full potential. In 2007 a study was conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics which reveals that the United States was behind the curve on critical thinking. Critical thinking methods aren’t being applied in schools as they should be. Students lack problem solving skills which lead to problems......

Words: 1602 - Pages: 7

Compare and Contrast Two Theories of Motivation

...Essay Question Compare and Contrast Two theories of motivation. Suggest how a team leader might use these theories to motivate their team. Motivation according to Vroom (1964) is based within the individual , which influences one to complete a task. It is important for team leaders to motivate their team in order to 'improve productivity' (Hyun and Oh ,2011, P103) and ensure that employees enjoy their jobs. Many theories of motivation have been developed, which allows team leaders use in work to motivate their teams The theory's which will be compared and contrasted in this essay are:- Herzbergs two-factor theory and Adams equity theory. Herzbergs theory, has become widely used as well as an respectable theory for explaining motivation and job satisfaction( Oscar,2005). Whilst Adam theory of equity explains the concept of perception of equitability and inequitability experience by the individual which determines how motivation they are. (Al-Zawahreh and Al-Madi 2012) Herzbergs (Herzbergs 1968) two factor theory of motivation was developed from responses of workers through the use of an 'critical incident' interviewing technique , in comparison to the equity theory which was developed through the use of the laboratory. (French et al, 2011). Hence the methodology issues raised in both questions the reliability of the theory's. This being, for the former (two-factor theory) although gathered data from real life industries of work,socially desirable answer may...

Words: 2294 - Pages: 10

Psychologists' Compare and Contrast

...Psychologists' Compare And Contrast – Jean Piaget & Sigmund Freud Similarities and differences Jean Piaget was a philosopher and developmental Swiss psychologist who is widely known for the epistemology studies relating children. Piaget’s theory of epistemology and cognitive development are both referred to as genetic epistemology.  Jean Piaget’s specific concern was on cognitive or intellectual development of a child and manner in which minds progress and process knowledge. Piaget’s fundamental thesis was based on the fact that children’s first grow theories of self-centric about the environment they are living in or about persons and objects in that environment. Secondly, children normally base the theories on the personal experiences that they go through while interacting with objects and persons in the environment. Thirdly, the child uses ‘Schemas’ in order to master or gain information regarding the environment. Lastly, sophistication of any child cognitive structure intensifies as a child develops as it did with a child’s schemas.  A child’s schema is a tool case of responses and actions to make things happen, initiating with rudimentary connections like grabbing or mouthing items and finally progress towards extremely sophisticated skills like scientific observation. Sigmund Freud, an Austrian neurologist, is the naissance father of the process of psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud’s main concerns were psychoanalysis which is a......

Words: 3158 - Pages: 13

Compare Contrast

...A behaviorist theory, operant conditioning, and a cognitivist theory, Piaget’s theory of stages of cognitive development, have multiple similarities and differences. A behaviorist theory is based on the fundamental idea that behaviors that are reinforced will tend to continue, while behaviors that are punished will eventually end. Piaget’s Stage Theory of Cognitive Development is a description of cognitive development as four distinct stages in children. These stages are sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, and formal. The term operant conditioning was coined by B. F. Skinner. His approach was to “focus on the external, visible causes of behavior, rather than try to unpack the internal thoughts and motivations” (Skinner, 1958, p. 48). Skinner understood that reinforcements come in two forms such as negative and positive forms. The negative reinforcements typically are characterized by the removal of an “undesired or unpleasant outcome after the desired conduct” (Alexander, 1996, p. 119). Skinner hypothesized that the response is strengthened as something considered negative is removed. On the other hand, the positive reinforcements are favorable outcomes or events that are given to the person after the desired behavior such as in the form of rewards or praises. Skinner suggested that, to reach these goals, the “reinforcement is for the person’s behavior to increase” (Casas, 2002, p. 133). On the other hand, there are positive and negative reinforcement. The two forms of......

Words: 1155 - Pages: 5

Compare & Contrast

...Abstract This paper will compare and contrast trait and situational approach leadership theories, the development of the theories and how effective each are in organizations. This paper will compare each approach, some of their research history and the challenges they faced in the past and the challenges they may or may not face in the future. The trait approach is the oldest theory that have been researched by numerous researchers. The situational approach consist of two elements that focus on leadership style and the development of subordinates. The strengths and weakness of each approach will also be compared and constrast.   Contrast and Comparison: An examination of Trait and Situational Leadership Approaches There are over 200 definitions for leadership that have used since the 1900’s. The ability to impress the will of the leader, acts by persons which influence other persons in a shared direction, and do as the leader wishes are a few definitions that were used during the 1900’s (Northouse, 2013). Today, leadership is defined as a process that involves individuals or groups to reach a common goal (Northouse, 2013,). It’s motivating and persuading people to obtain a desired result through communication and influence. Leadership is also defined as a process that happens between a leader and a follower (Northouse, 2013). During the 20th century, researchers belived that there were natural born leaders who were born with the “trait” to lead. They......

Words: 1124 - Pages: 5

Piagets Theory

...“Cognitive Development is the construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem solving and decision making from childhood through adolescense to adulthood.” (Answer.com) According to Jean Piaget, cognitive development progresses gradually through a series of stages. “Jean Piaget was born in 1896 in Menchates, Switzerland. Piaget begain the study on child behaviour through his own kids.” (Newkrik, E) He studied his kids intellectual development from infancy. While conducting his studies on his kids, Piaget developed a theory which was sub divided into four stages of intellectual development. Piaget’s intellectual development theory was divided into four stages and was also known as stage theory. The first stage is Senserimotor stage which starts from the birth of the child till age two. This stage is also named as infancy. According to Piaget, infant “presume that the world profoundly lacks permanence.” (Mitchell P, Ziegler F 2007) Piaget subdivided the stage of infancy into six further stages. In a brief this stage says that the child depends on seeing, feeling, sucking and they learn how to feel though their environment. In this stage it was proven that the infact has the ability to coordinate separate activites. For instance, the coordination between looking and reaching. Object permanence was one of the important concepts developed during this stage. “Object permanence is the awareness that an object continues to exist even when it is not in view.” (In a......

Words: 1273 - Pages: 6

Piagets Theory

...Literature review of Piaget’s theory of developmental psychology (1954), object permanence and a critical evaluation of Piaget’s theory in relation to recent studies that show different results to that which Piaget originally gathered and based his stage theory on. Introduction The work of Jean Piaget (1896-1980), has made him go down in history as one of the most instrumental and influential figures in the history of psychology to date. His contribution to the world of psychology is based around the field of developmental psychology. He transformed this area of psychology and laid the foundations upon which subsequent research can be based around and undercover more of the truth behind the cognitive development of infants. Piaget believed that the key to understanding children’s thought processes is not whether they get the answer right, rather the key lies within how they arrived at the answer (Holt et. al, 2012). Piaget stated that our brains hold schemas, which are responsible for organising our patterns of thoughts and actions (Holt et al., 2012). Building on this mental framework he introduced the concepts of assimilation and accommodation which helped lay down the foundation upon which he could build his work on. Piaget committed 50 years of his life to study the intellectual development that occurs in children which ultimately led to the development of his well-acclaimed staged theory of cognitive development (Hock, 2009). His theory is based on the idea that......

Words: 1369 - Pages: 6

Nursing Theory: Compare/Contrast Two Theories

... Nursing Theory: Compare/contrast two theories Name University Professor Course Date Nursing Theory: Compare/contrast two theoriesIntroduction Theory has so far remained a strategic tool in advanced nursing practice. Firstly, nursing utilizes every feature of management science. Fortunately, the knowledge base of each and every management science takes theory into account. Theory includes methods, principles, and concepts. The principles are usually related, and can be observed and validated or verified when translated into the practice of management. Likewise, concepts are general notions, thoughts, and ideas that tend to form a basis of discussion or action. Therefore, theoretical principles guide clinical nurses to various fundamental nursing concepts and provide productive line of action in a given situation. As a result, nurses should note that taking a hermeneutic or phenomenological approach (strict natural science approach) to nursing is not only naive but also misleading in real-life-settings. Alligood and Tomey, on the other hand, argues that prescriptive theories are often used as fundamental practice guidelines, which play a pivotal role in providing a wide range of practice situations in the nursing and nursing sector (2002). Apart from that, nursing can only become a real profession when it has both a theoretical and a scientific base. This follows the fact that nurses deal mainly with human behavior, thus, nursing is indeed a practice profession. ......

Words: 2271 - Pages: 10

Piaget Theory

...In regards to child development Piaget has come up with a theory called cognitive development. The cognitive theory development theory basically shows that children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world. (Berk 2014) Piaget broke this theory up into four categories. The first category is called the Sensori-motor stage. This stage usually occurs from birth until 2 years of age. Here infants learn by exploring their world using their eyes, ears, hands and mouth. Because of this learning style they are able to solve simple Sensori- motor issues. An example of this would be children learning to put things and take things out of a box. The next stage according to Piaget’s theory would be called the Preoperational stage. This age group is ranged from 2 to 7 years of age. Here pre-school children would use symbols to represent their earlier discoveries. During this stage language and make believe starts to develop. The next phase is called the concrete operational stage. This stage is grouped from 7 to 11 ears of age. During this stage children become more logical with their reasoning. The last stage according to Piaget is called the formal operational stage. This stage is grouped from 11 years of age and on. Piaget’s theory has caused many researchers to not only study and learn tremendously but to challenge him as well. According to research, Piaget underestimated the capabilities of infants and preschoolers. Researchers found......

Words: 988 - Pages: 4

Care Theory Compare and Contrast Paper

...Care Theory Compare and Contrast Paper Jean Watson’s Theory of human caring is based on transpersonal relationships and developing a caring environment that offers the development potential while allowing the person to choose the best course of action. Through interactions with others we learn how to recognize ourselves in others. Watson believes that through these interactions humanity is preserved. John Paley’s article A Slave Morality: Nietzchean themes in nursing ethics criticizes Watson’s theory that caring is central to nursing. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast John Paley’s article to Jean Watson’s Commentary on Shattle M (2004) Nurse-patient interaction: A review of the literature. A discussion of Watson’s background and care theory; John Paley’s background, and a brief discussion Friedich Nietzschen’s major philosophical beliefs. Jean Watson’s background Jean Watson was born in West Virginia in 1940. She graduated from the University of Colorado where she earned her BSN, MS, and in 1973 her PhD. Dr. Watson is widely published and has received many awards and honors. She is a distinguished professor of nursing and endowed chair in Caring Health Science. She is also a fellow at the American Academy of nursing. Watson’s research specialized in loss and human caring. She developed the Theory of Transpersonal Caring, which is also referred to as The Caring Model in the late 1970’s. Her theory evolved over many years, but the principles have......

Words: 1571 - Pages: 7

dwonload lagu linkin park in the end | 2018 American Silver Eagle 1 oz Coin | Sealed US Mint Roll of 20 | English Movies Dubbed in Hindi