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Chinese Literature

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1. 徐志摩、鄭愁予生平 2. 〈偶然〉、〈錯誤〉內容概述 3. 〈偶然〉、〈錯誤〉的藝術特點(如意象、聲律、結構、用字等) 4. 〈偶然〉、〈錯誤〉對傳統詩歌的繼承與開拓

http://baike.baidu.com/view/14176.htm
人物背景:
1921年開始創作新詩。赴英國留學,入倫敦劍橋大學當特別生,研究政治經濟學。在劍橋兩年受西方教育的熏陶及歐美浪漫主義和唯美派詩人的影響。

徐志摩是徐家的長孫獨子,自小過著舒適優裕的公子哥的生活。沈鈞儒是徐志摩的表叔,金庸是徐志摩的姑表弟,瓊瑤是徐志摩的表外甥女。

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婚姻感情
1915年,與張幼儀結婚,後於1922年3月在柏林離婚。
與林徽因的感情沒有結果,而後遇到了陸小曼。
與張幼儀
1915年,由政界風雲人物張君勱為自己的妹妹張幼儀提親,徐志摩把從未謀面的新娘娶進了門。張幼儀端莊善良,具有中國傳統的婦女美德,尊重丈夫,孝敬公婆,賢淑穩重,善操持家務。婚後生了兩個兒子,能相夫教子。然而,徐志摩在張幼儀生完第二個兒子正虛弱的時候,遞上了離婚協議書。
與林徽因
林徽因遊歷歐洲,在英倫期間,結識了當時正在英國遊學的徐志摩。當時徐志摩已是一個兩歲孩子的父親。徐志摩被林徽因出眾的才華與美麗所吸引,對她評價甚高,苦苦地追求林徽因,並不惜與髮妻張幼儀離婚。但林徽因經過理智的思索,和父親一起提前回國了,而且是與志摩不辭而別……徐志摩寫給林徽因的那首有名的《偶然》詩是這樣寫的:“我是天空裡的一片雲/偶爾投影在你的波心/你不必訝異/更無須歡喜/在轉瞬間消滅了踪影/你我相逢在黑夜的海上/你有你的/我有我的方向/你記得也好/最好你忘掉/在這交會時互放的光亮。”這是徐志摩對林徽因感情的最好自白,一見傾心而又理智地各走各的方向,這就是世俗所難理解的一種純情。
與陸小曼
徐志摩留學後回到北京,常與朋友王賡(一個軍官)相聚。王賡的妻子陸小曼,對徐志摩影響甚大。徐志摩和陸小曼在北京交際場相識相愛。徐志摩在與陸小曼熱戀之時,寫下了曠世名篇《愛眉小扎》,他說;“眉,我感謝上蒼,因為你已經接受了我;這來我的靈性有了永久的寄託,我的生命有了最光榮的起點,我這一輩子再不能想望關於我自身更大的事情發現,我一天有你的愛,我的命就有根,我就是精神上的大富翁!”、“有志事竟成,沒有錯兒。奮勇上前吧,眉,你不用怕,有我整個兒在你旁邊站著,誰要動你分毫?有我拼著性命保護你,你還怕什麼?”濃烈熾熱的文字,吐露著愛人的纏綿深情。
在剛結婚的前段日子裡,雖然徐父徐母對陸小曼依然心有不滿,但是兩人也過得浪漫、愜意。只是到了後期,由於陸小曼的病,由於徐申如的拒絕接納,由於鴉片的侵蝕

陸小曼
等諸多原因,陸小曼變得越發嬌慵、懶惰、貪玩,渾沒了當初戀愛時的激情,似乎不再是一個有靈性的女人。徐志摩為了使妻子心喜,就一味遷就她。雖然在口頭上常常婉轉地告誡陸小曼,但效果不大。後來,徐志摩的父親徐申如出於對陸小曼極度不滿,在經濟上與他們夫婦一刀兩斷。徐志摩要從父親處拿錢是不現實的,因此,他不得不同時在光華大學、東吳大學、大夏大學三所學校講課,課餘還趕寫詩文,以賺取稿費。1930年秋,即陸小曼29歲那年,徐志摩索性辭去了上海和南京的職務,應胡適之邀,任北京大學教授,兼北京女子師範大學教授,以掙家用,僅1931年的上半年,徐志摩就在上海、北京兩地來回奔波了8次。當時,人均的年薪為五塊大洋,而徐志摩一年即可掙到幾百大洋,但是即便如此,仍然滿足不了家庭的花銷。陸小曼為什麼會養成這樣大手大腳的毛病呢?一個重要原因是因為她出生名門,又是家裡唯一的孩子,難免養成小姐脾氣。
徐志摩死後,陸小曼不再出去交際。她默默忍受著外界對她的批評和指責。正如她在致志摩輓聯中說;“多少前塵成噩夢,五載哀歡,匆匆永訣,天道复奚論,欲死未能因母老;萬千別恨向誰言,一身愁病,渺渺離魂,人間應不久,遺文編就答君心。”她 懷念志摩,致力於整理出版徐志摩的遺作,用了幾十年的時間,其中的苦辣酸甜一言難盡。徐志摩與陸小曼的婚姻是衝破封建束縛的自由結合,其間雖也曾彼此傷害,但也深深相愛。

《翡冷翠的一夜》是徐志摩的第二個詩集,是他的1925至1927年部分詩歌創作的匯集。這一時期徐志摩的思想和生活發生了一個較大的波折。1924年4月,他在北京認識了陸小曼,並著了魔似的與她熱戀起來,此事招致社會的非議和家庭的反對。但他倆全不顧這一切,可一時又難以解決,徐志摩在十分痛苦和矛盾的心情下,於1925年3月11日啟程出國歐遊,想暫時擺脫一下生活上的苦惱和困境。他在意大利的翡冷翠(即佛羅倫薩)住了一段時間,他將他的傷悲,他的感觸,託付紙筆,寫了不少詩,因此,這部詩集就題名為《翡冷翠的一夜》,這個詩集,除了有哈代、羅賽蒂等英國作家的譯詩外,還有像《西伯利亞》、《在哀克剎脫教堂前》那樣漫遊歐洲時對異鄉他國生活的感受。他也寫了一不少愛情詩篇。《翡冷翠的一夜》,可以看作是記敘了當時他和陸小曼之間的感情波瀾,他的熱烈的感情和無法擺脫的痛苦。

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人物简介

曾在美国克拉克大学(Clark University)﹑伦敦剑桥大学留學。在剑桥两年受西方教育的熏陶及欧美浪漫主义和唯美派诗人的影响,返国后在报刊上发表大量诗文。
1923年,参与发起成立新月社,加入文学研究会。
1924年与胡适、陈西滢等创办《现代诗评》周刊,任北京大学教授。印度大诗人泰戈尔访华时任翻译。
1925年 任北京大学教授,赴欧洲,游历苏、德、意、法等国。
1926年在北京主编《晨报》副刊《诗镌》,与闻一多、朱湘等人开展新诗格律化运动,影响到新诗艺术的发展。同年移居上海,任光华大学、大夏大学和南京中央大学(1949年更名为南京大学[2])教授。和胡适、闻一多等人创立“新月书店”、创办《新月》杂志。
1927年参加创办新月书店。次年《新月》月刊创刊后任主编。并出国游历英、美、日、印等国。
1930年任中华文化基金委员会委员,被选为英国诗社社员。同年冬到北京大学与北京女子大学任教。
1931年初,与陈梦家、方玮德创办《诗刊》季刊,被推选为笔会中国分会理事。同年11月19日,由南京乘飞机到北平,因遇大雾在济南附近触山(山东女子学院东),故飞机失事,因而遇难。更为巧合的是,失事飞机叫“济南号”。蔡元培为其写挽联:
谈话是诗,举动是诗,毕生行径都是诗,诗的意味渗透了,随遇自有乐土;乘船可死,驱车可死,斗室生卧也可死,死于飞机偶然者,不必视为畏途。…...

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