Cell

In: Science

Submitted By Malardo123
Words 523
Pages 3
Why We Study the Cell and Its Components

The cell is the basic unit of all living organisms. Some organisms like bacteria have only one cell while other organisms are multi cellular. It is important to study the cell and its components because it enables understanding of our own life and opens up windows of opportunity for the future generations. Understanding cells and their component functions allows for better understanding of disease and the possibility of cures or better treatment options. Biologists study the cell in healthy and diseased states to develop new vaccines, medicines, plants with improved qualities and to gain a better understanding of how all living things live. The study of cells and its components is also helpful in solving crimes through forensic science. In biotechnology, the study of cells is used to clone plants and animals, and with time possibly for the production of organs.

In studying cells it is important to know what organism the cell comes from. There are two types of cells, the prokaryotic and eukaryotic. The prokaryotic were the first type of cells to evolve. Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus; bacteria are the best known prokaryotic cells. Organisms that contain eukaryotic cells include fungi, animals, and plants as well as some unicellular organisms. The eukaryotic cell is much bigger and contains membrane bound compartments where metabolic activities take place.

The components of the cell include, plasma membrane, cytoskeleton, cytoplasm, genetic material, organelles, nucleus, ribosome, mitochondria and chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi apparatus. The plasma membrane serves to separate and protect a cell from its surrounding environment and is made mostly from a double layer of proteins and lipids, fat-like molecules. The cytoskeleton is unique to eukaryotic cells and serves both as a muscle and…...

Similar Documents

Cell

...Plant Cell Organelles and Their Functions BIO 204 Cell Animation. 1) Golgi apparatus: The Golgi apparatus is flattened sacs involved in storing, modifying, and secreting proteins and lipids. 2) Chloroplast: The chloroplast contains green chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules. a) Outer membrane: The chloroplast’s outer membrane is permeable to most ions. b) Intermembrane space: The intermembrane space separates the outer and inner membranes. c) Innermembrane: The innermembrane is specialized and permeable to specific transport proteins. d) Stroma: The stroma is the area of the chloroplast where carbon dioxide is converted into glucose during the light’s independent reactions of photosynthesis. e) Lamellae: Lamellae are connective strands between grana. f) Thykaloid disk: Each thykaloid disk contains chlorophyll, which is the pigment involved in capturing sunlight for photosynthesis. g) Granum (plural grana): Stacks of thykaloid disks where ATP is produced during photosynthesis. 3) Mitochondrion (plural mitochondria): The mitochondrion converts stored glucose into ATP during aerobic respiration. ATP is the energy molecule found in all life forms and is necessary for biochemical reactions in cells. 4) Cell wall: The cell wall is the......

Words: 447 - Pages: 2

Plant Cells vs Solar Cells

...Semi-conductor based solar cells and Photosynthesis has many qualities that are in common. Plants receive sunlight from contact (light reaction). A photovoltaic (PV) panel provides sunlight to the solar cells. Similar to how sunlight helps produce chlorophyll in plants, semiconducting material absorbs sunlight. (Oppapers.com). Because of their outputs, photosynthesis and semi-conductor solar cells have great value.. In order to create food, plants absorb sunlight and create oxygen. While this process takes place, plants use sunlight and carbon dioxide to convert water molecules into hydrogen, oxygen, and electrons (Oppapers.com). The light reaction of photosynthesis can be easily compared to how electricity is created with solar cells. The electrons that are in the solar cell get energy from the sun; from that point they are converted to a high energy level. After being turned into a high energy level, they are then accepted by the wire to run the semi-conductor motor. These processes are similar because they both lose electrons. In solar cells electrons are replenished when the electrical circuit is complete and in plant cells, splitting water furnishes more electrons (Johnson, S.). Although they have similarities, they are also very different. Plants have a more difficult time at absorbing sunlight than solar cells. Plants have the responsibility of providing energy to live on, whereas solar cells only have to provide electricity for a wire. It is very important...

Words: 527 - Pages: 3

Solar Cells and Plant Cells Compared

...Solar and Plant Cells Compared Tiffany L. Triggs Strayer University The Importance of Energy For plant Earth, the Sun is the main source for all energy. It is the main essential thing that provides us with light, warmth and energy. Some organisms, such as plants and algae, create their own food using the sun as their main source of energy. In turn the fuel the rest of the world by creating energy for animals and humans after being consumed. They also remove carbon dioxide from the air and replenish oxygen for us to breath. This process, through which this energy is harnessed and used to create food, or carbohydrates, is called photosynthesis. Can the energy of the sun be harnessed by humans to create energy? It can be and it is through the use of solar cells. Photosynthesis and solar cells are similar, yet different in a few ways. Creating Our Own Energy Humans have figured out how to use the power of the sun for energy. Using Solar panels containing semiconductors, we can turn the sun into electricity, a very popular form of energy. In this way, photosynthesis and solar cells are similar, both using the suns light to create a form of energy. The type of energy created, however, is where one difference comes into play. Plants create a chemical energy known as carbohydrates, a simple organic compound of oxygen, carbon and hydrogen, while solar cells use semiconductors to produce electricity. Use of Electrons Solar Cells and Photosynthesis both use a......

Words: 451 - Pages: 2

The Cell

...The cell This semester I enrolled in the terrorism course. One of the requirements was to read a book called, The Cell, Inside the 9/11 Plot, and By John J. Miller. I thoroughly enjoy the topic of terrorism and I continually educate myself on this topic. I actually began to read the book the weekend of Sept 11th 2011. The book over all was a very intense book, it went into great details on many avenues of the 9/11 plot and what went wrong. I have written a review of my first hand account of this book and what it means to me. The authors do a very good job of providing an overview of the long string of Islamic fundamentalist attacks on American interests and the homeland, from the Meir Kahane assassination, on November 5, 1990, to the attacks on September 11, 2001.  In fact, they trace some of the origins of the reign of terror back to groups like the Black Liberation Army, which ended up overlapping with Muslim fundamentalists groups, helping to train them and to acquire arms.  It was actually in 1980, when the BLA, Black Panthers, Weather Underground, and others were engaging in domestic terrorism in and around New York City that the FBI and the New York Police Department formed a Joint Terrorism Task Force.  Most of the book follows the work of the JTTF in general and of Agent John O'Neill.  Mr. O'Neill, in a bitter irony, had just left the JTTF to take a job as Chief of Security at the World Trade Center when the towers were struck.   His stories, and John Miller’s long...

Words: 908 - Pages: 4

Cells

...Cell Structure and Function AbstractThis report is about cell structure and function. The cell is the basic unit of life. All living things are madeof cells. By doing this lab, I hoped to learn how a cell looked and how it functioned. I also wanted toknow the differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells Introduction The concept of this lab is producing a replica of an animal cell, and a plant cell. Producing the models of the cells helps to provide a better understanding of each cell and its contents also, to explore thedifferences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Cell theory states that all cells reproduce new cells,while passing their genetic information. In addition, cells make up all living things, metabolize energyand that the chemical make-up of cells is similar. The objectives for this lab are to gather the materials,which include gelatin packs, plastic bags, water, Tupperware, bowls, and some small various householditems. The other objectives are preparing the gelatin as directed, gathering the household items that willserve as cell organelles, pouring the gelatin in the bag and placing the items in the plastic bags. Thenplace the cell replicas in the refrigerator for 24 hours. Results After twenty-four hours, I removed the cell replicas from the refrigerator and observed them. They didnot look exactly like I planed but they were understandable. Discussion Replicating the cell structures provides better understand the structure......

Words: 403 - Pages: 2

Cells

...Associate Program Material Cell Energy Worksheet Answer the following questions: Cellular respiration: • What is cellular respiration and what are its three stages? Is the oxygen requiring reaction occurring in mitochondria, that break down the end product of glycolysis into carbon dioxide and water while capturing large amounts of energy as ATP. The three stages of cellular respiration are 1, glycolysis, 2. citric acid cycle and 3. electron transport. • What is the role of glycolysis? Include the reactants and the products. Where does it occur? The first step in getting energy out of food. Glycolysis breaks one glucose molecule down into two molecules of pyruvate. Glycolysis happens in almost all organisms, and it can take place with or without oxygen. The function of glycolysis is to break down glucose. It metabolizes the six-carbon sugars into three-carbon compounds. It also produces small amounts of ATP. The reactants of a glycolysis reaction are a variety of different kinds of proteins. One good example would be ATP. A product of Glycolysis would be pyruvate, which is the main product of glycoysis. This all occurs in the first stage of cellular respiration. • What is the role of the citric acid cycle? Include the reactants and the products. Where does it occur? The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycles, is the process that oxidizes acetyl coenzyme-A to......

Words: 1007 - Pages: 5

Cell

...Animal Cell | Cell functions | Smooth endoplasmic reticulum | associated with the production and metabolism of fats and steroid hormones | Rough endoplasmic reticulum | involved in some protein production, protein folding, quality control and despatch. | Nuclear envelope | surrounds the nucleus with a double membrane with multiple pores. | Chromatin | Mass of genetic material composed of DNA and proteins that condense to form chromosomes during eukaryotic cell division. | Nucleolus | A small, typically round granular body composed of protein and RNA in the nucleus of a cell. It is usually associated with a specific chromosomal site and involved in ribosomal RNA synthesis and the formation of ribosomes. | Ribosomes | Ribosomes are cell organelles that consist of RNA and proteins. They are responsible for assembling the proteins of the cell. | Golgi apparatus | a cell structure mainly devoted to processing the proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). | Mitochondrion | which is to generate large quantities of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). | Plasma membrane | forms a stable barrier between two aqueous compartments | Microfilament | involved in cytoplasmic movement and changes in cell shape. | Intermediate filament | to reinforce cells and to organize cells into tissues | Microtubule | involved in nuceic and cell division, organization of intracellular structure, and intracellular......

Words: 262 - Pages: 2

Cells

...Structures in All Eukaryotic Cells We're going to start with eukaryotic cells even though they tend to be more complex than prokaryotic. But, there is a method to our madness: you are a eukaryote and have eukaryotic cells, so we thought you might relate better. And, eukaryotic comes before prokaryotic alphabetically. Come up with whatever reasons you want for it, but eukaryotes are up first. Tough cookies. Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function A cell is defined as eukaryotic if it has a membrane-bound nucleus. Any organism composed of eukaryotic cells is also considered a eukaryotic organism. Case in point: You. Biologists do not know of any single organism on Earth that is composed of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. However, many different types of prokaryotic cells, usually bacteria, can live inside larger eukaryotic organisms. Creepy, but true. We humans, for example, have trillions of bacteria living in our colons, not to mention in our mouths and stomachs and small intestines and…you get the picture. Despite the fact that we have gobs of prokaryotic cells living inside and on us, humans are still categorically eukaryotic organisms. Deal with it. This means that all human cells, including those found in the brain, the heart, the muscles, and so on, are also eukaryotic. Here is what one of these little guys looks like: OK, we are slightly impressed. That is a lot of stuff jam-packed into something we can't see too well with the naked eye. All......

Words: 1363 - Pages: 6

Cell

...www.asbiology101.wordpress.com An introduction to the microscope and magnification MAGNIFICATION AND RESOLUTION Because cells are too small to be seen with the naked eye, the light microscope was developed to produce enlarged and more detailed images of cells. The magnification of an image is how much bigger it appears under the microscope than it is in real life, and is worked out using the following formula: magnification = image size ÷ actual size unit metre decimetre centimetre millimetre micrometre nanometre picometre symbol m dm cm mm μm nm pm metres 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000 001 0.000 000 001 0.000 000 000 01 However, magnification on its own does not increase the level of detail seen, it just increases the size. The term resolution refers to the ability to see two distinct points separately. For example, if the resolution of a light microscope is 200nm (0.2μm), this means it can see any two different points as separate objects if they are 200nm apart or more; but if they are any closer than this amount, they appear as one object. THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE Light microscopes use a number of lenses to produce an image that can be viewed directly at the eyepiece. Light passes from a bulb under the stage, through a condenser lens and then through the specimen. This beam of light is passed through an objective lens and then the eyepiece lens. The light microscope usually has a number of objective lenses which can be rotated into......

Words: 8313 - Pages: 34

Plant Cell vs Solar Cell

...Plant Cell versus Solar Cell Katrina Minchew July 18, 2011 Strayer University | | Photosynthesis is defined as the process in which green plants and other organisms by which carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water using light as an energy source. It takes place mainly inside the leaves. This process utilizes light energy and it is transformed into chemical energy used to create organic compounds. Photosynthesis consists of two processes that use both light and dark energy. The first process, light reaction transforms light into energy. The second process utilizes dark reactions, use the energy and carbon dioxide to produce sugar. The process needs sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. These materials are transported through the leaves. Water is absorbed by the plant through the roots and is then delivered to the leaves through the plant tissue. The carbon dioxide is absorbed through small holes in plant leaves known as stomata. It also releases oxygen. The process known as chlorophyll is when the green pigment of plants and photosynthetic algae and bacteria trap the energy of sunlight. In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside the chloroplasts, which is the organelle that carries out photosynthesis and starch grain formation. A chlorophyll-containing organelle in plants is the site of photosynthesis. A solar cell also known as the photovoltaic cell is a solid state electrical mechanism that converts the energy of light directly into......

Words: 629 - Pages: 3

Cells

...Cells Assessment- Second Sitting 2015-6 Watch the short video at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rpj0emEGShQ (see footnote ), then answer the following question 1. Type your answers into the boxes 1) a) What substance are the “yellow, little knobby things” called “Keys” on the virus made of? ------------------------------------------------- These are made of proteins 1.2 b) The narrator says the “keys” fit into locks”. Do eukaryotes and prokaryotes have similar “locks” and where are they found? ------------------------------------------------- 1.2 c) Specifically what type of substance are these “locks” in eukaryotes made of? ------------------------------------------------- Cell membrane. 1.2 d) “If the lock fits, the cell welcomes the virus in.” Name the transport process by which the cell takes the virus in. ------------------------------------------------- Endocytosis. 2.1 e) Name the structure in the host cell that is described as the “welcoming committee, that pulls the virus deeper into the cell” ------------------------------------------------- The cytoplasm. 1.1 f) Name the......

Words: 606 - Pages: 3

Cell to Cell Communication

...Kaishea White Period: 3 01.12.14 IB Biology Cell To Cell Communication Unicellular and multicellular organisms need to sense their environment in order to survive. Unicellular organisms need to be able to differentiate between poisonous foods and to avoid predators. Cells release chemical messengers to communicate. They communicate either by paracrine signaling or gap junctions. Local signaling in animals is called paracrine signaling. While gap junction is the direct contact between cells. There are principles of cell signaling where the cells convert signals that carry information and then attach to one another. A target cell detects the signal that the cell releases during the communication of the cells. Animals have factors that contribute to their communication that include direct contact, growth factors, or neurotransmitters. The growth factors and neurotransmitters are what secrete the local regulators. Meaning that they separate the local regulators. There are 3 stages of cell signaling; reception, transduction, and response. In the first stage, reception, the target cell senses the signaling molecule in the exterior. During the second stage, transduction, the signal is converted and formed to do a specific function. The final stage, response, is where the specific function is carried out. In reception a signal molecule binds to a receptor protein and that causes it to change shape. The most important stage in......

Words: 369 - Pages: 2

Cell

...The structure and functions of Cell The purpose of this report is to explain the structure and functions of Cell. Cell is the basic unit of life and it contains other membrane-bound organelles structures that carry out specific functions necessary for normal cellular operation. Organelles have a wide range of roles and functions that include everything from producing hormones and enzymes to providing energy for Cells. Organelles Location Structure Functions Nucleus Centre - Nucleus is spherical in shape - Nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear envelope - Nucleus is separated from cytoplasm by double membrane - It functions as an intermediary when DNA replication is taking place during cell cycle. - It contains hereditary materials DNA and RNA - It directs activities of the cell such as growth, metabolism and reproduction. - It create different type of RNA from DNA in the process called Transcription - It is control centre of the cell Nucleolus Inside the Nucleus (Centre) - It is spherical in shape - It is made of Protein and RNA - It helps in synthesis of Ribosome - It helps in assembly of signal recognition particles in the cell - It helps in sensing stress in the cell Golgi body They are found in Cytoplasm of the cell - It is sac-like - It comprises stacks of membrane structure - It is involve in movement of Lipid molecules around the cell - It helps in process and package of macromolecules e.g. Protein - It modifies protein after Endoplasmic Reticulum......

Words: 614 - Pages: 3

Cells

...Stem cells: What they are and what they do Researchers believe stem cells offer great promise for new medical treatments. Learn about stem cell types, current and possible uses, ethical issues and the state of research. By Mayo Clinic staff You've heard about stem cells in the news, and perhaps you've wondered if they might help you or a loved one with a serious disease. You may wonder what stem cells are, how they're being used to treat disease and injury, and why they're the subject of such vigorous debate. Here are some answers to frequently asked questions about stem cells. Why is there such an interest in stem cells? Researchers hope stem cell studies can help to: * Increase understanding of how diseases occur. By watching stem cells mature into cells that eventually become bones, heart muscle, nerve cells, and other organs and tissue, researchers and doctors may better understand how a variety of diseases and conditions develop. * Generate healthy cells to replace diseased cells (regenerative medicine). Researchers hope they can train stem cells into becoming specific cells so that those specialized cells can be used to regenerate and repair diseased or damaged tissues in people. People who might benefit from stem cell therapies include those with spinal cord injuries, type 1 diabetes, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, heart disease, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and multiple sclerosis. Stem cells could also be grown to become......

Words: 19974 - Pages: 80

Stem Cell and Cell Culture

...STEM CELL & CELL CULTURE Differences between embryonic and adult stem cells. One of the differences between embryonic and adult stem cells is the cell potency. Cell potency comes from the term potential and basically means a cells’ potential to differentiate and take on different functions. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and thus can form all types of cells (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm). Adult stem cells on the other hand are mostly multipotent, meaning the cells can only differentiate to different cell types from the same tissue of origin. For instance, blood stem cells can differentiate into many different type of blood cells but cannot differentiate to become muscle or neuron cells. To put it simply, adult stem cell are more specialized (focused on a particular tissue lineage) whereas, embryonic stem cells are more versatile. (Stem Cell Research- Pros and Cons, Date retrieved: 17th September 2011) Another difference between adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells is the ease of culturing these cells. It is significantly easier to cultivate embryonic stem cells in comparison to adult stem cells. Adult stem cells are hard to isolate in mature tissue and have a hard time surviving past a few generations during the in-vitro culturing. Considering stem cell therapy requires a large amount cells, embryonic stem cells are a more feasible alternative as they can grow rather easily in the lab. (Stem Cell Information, Date retrieved: 20th September 2011) ......

Words: 1355 - Pages: 6

Beyond Valkyrie: Dawn of the 4th Reich (2016) | Sbrinatore di carne elettrica | Batterie power battery decharge lente 12v 110ah 500 cycles de vie