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Chapter 10

MEASUREMENT IN MARKETING RESEARCH

GENERAL CONCEPT MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1. In the text, Maritz Research offers criteria for customer-satisfaction scales. Which of the following is NOT one of the criteria? a. be reliable b. be valid c. apply to a specific product or service d. be easy for respondents to relate to e. be symmetrically unbalanced

Answer: (c) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 268

2. What are the basic question-response formats? a. unprobed, probed, and neutral b. open-ended, closed-ended, and skip patterned c. open-ended, closed-ended, and scaled-response d. closed-ended, continuous, open-ended e. open-ended, probed, general

Answer: (c) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 270

3. The question "What was your reaction to the Sony CD player advertisement you saw on television?" is an example of which response format? a. unprobed, open-ended b. unprobed, closed-ended c. scaled-response d. ad reaction measurement e. probed response

Answer: (a) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 271

4. If a researcher wanted the respondent to simply answer an open-ended question with no additional information, he/she would likely use a(n): a. open-ended, unprobed format b. open-ended, probed format c. closed-ended, probed format d. continuous response format e. general format

Answer: (a) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 271

5. Which of the following encourages the respondent to provide information beyond the initial and possibly superficial first comments? a. open-ended, unprobed format b. closed-ended, exploratory format c. deductive probed d. optional format e. open-ended, probed format

Answer: (e) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 271

6. Which of the following formats provides response options to questions on the questionnaire? a. response options format b. closed-ended format c. open-ended format d. probed format e. optional format

Answer: (b) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 271

7. Which of the following formats has only two response options? a. the twins format b. dichotomous closed-ended format c. the dual format d. the di-format e. the bi-format

Answer: (b) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 271

8. A scale on which all of the scale positions, say 1 through 5, are identified with some descriptor is called: a. a descriptor scale format b. a labeled scaled-response format c. a numerical/descriptor format d. a numeric identifier e. no such scale exists

Answer: (b) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 272

9. Your textbook suggested several considerations in deciding on the proper response format for a study. Which one of the following was discussed by your authors? a. what will be the most cost-effective format b. the ability of the researcher c. keeping data analysis requirements limited to descriptive statistics d. keeping the length of the questionnaire to one page or less e. what response format was used in a previous study with which we wish to compare results

Answer: (e) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 272

10. For subjective properties such as "liking for chocolate," which response format would likely be best? a. closed-ended b. dual-response c. scaled-response d. the "liking index" response format e. objective response

Answer: (c) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 272

11. Which of the following is defined as determining if and how much of a property is possessed by an object? a. scale level b. attributes of properties c. subjective and objective properties d. measurement e. intensity determination

Answer: (d) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 273

12. Researchers measure ________ of ________. a. properties/objects b. numbers/customers c. objects/measurements d. objects/properties e. types/products

Answer: (a) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 273

13. Age, income, gender, and interest in buying product X would all be considered ________ of the consumer, or object. a. description b. properties c. subjective descriptors d. objectives descriptors e. commonalities

Answer: (b) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 273

14. If we were measuring age, income, height, number of bottles purchased, and so on, we would be measuring: a. objective properties b. subjective properties c. objective objects d. subjective objects e. none of the above

Answer: (a) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 274

15. Which of the following refers to a unique descriptor, or label, to stand for each designation on the scale? a. description b. order c. distance d. origin e. label designation

Answer: (a) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 275

16. Which of the following refers to the relative sizes of the descriptors? a. description b. order c. distance d. origin e. relativity

Answer: (b) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 275

17. When we have less-than, greater-than, and/or equal to, we have: a. description b. order c. distance d. origin e. timelines

Answer: (b) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 275
18. Which of the following refers to a scale having a true zero beginning point? a. description b. order c. distance d. origin e. start point

Answer: (d) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 275

19. Which single characteristic is unique to nominal level of measurement? a. description b. order c. distance d. origin e. numbers

Answer: (a) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 276

20. If the distance between the 2 and the 3 and the 6 and the 7 on a scale are equal, the scale would likely be at least: a. nominal b. ordinal c. interval d. ratio e. equality

Answer: (c) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 276

21. Which characteristic is associated only with ratio scales? a. description b. order c. distance d. origin e. ratiocination

Answer: (d) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 278

22. A question that asks how much you would be willing to pay in annual premium for a $100,000 life insurance policy would be scaled as: a. nominal b. ordinal c. interval d. ratio e. None of the above

Answer: (d) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 278

23. A question that asks the age of a respondent in years would be scaled as: a. nominal b. ordinal c. interval d. ratio e. age-related

Answer: (d) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 278

24. Understanding the measurement level of a scale is important because it: a. is said to be important by statisticians b. tells us what we can/cannot say about the object's properties being measured c. tells us what we can/cannot say about the object's properties being measured as well as dictating the type of statistical analysis that may be performed d. dictates the type of statistical analysis that may be performed as well as being important in terms of communicating the results to the client in a manner that facilitates a clear presentation e. lets us know how expensive a project will be

Answer: (c) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 279

25. Because they measure psychological constructs of consumers, such as attitudes, opinions, and so on, and because these constructs exist on a continuum, scaled-response question formats are most useful for measuring: a. physical constructs b. brand name awareness c. sales d. unobservable constructs e. None of the above

Answer: (d) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 279

26. A scale ranging on a continuum from one extreme (i.e. very satisfied, strongly agree) to the other extreme (i.e. very dissatisfied, strongly disagree) and having a neutral position is known as a(n): a. intensity metered scale b. extremism scale c. bipolar scale d. balanced scale e. neutral-centrist scale

Answer: (d) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 280

27. Which scaled-response form asks respondents to indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement with a statement? a. agreement inventory b. semantic differential c. constant sum scale d. modified Likert scale e. degree scale

Answer: (d) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 281

28. Which type of scaled-response format measures activities, interests, and opinions? a. constant sum scale b. lifestyle inventory c. semantic differential scale d. percentage scale e. graphic intensity scale

Answer: (b) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 281

29. Which type of scaled-response format contains bipolar words such as "hot–cold," "wet–dry," "convenient–inconvenient," and so on? a. constant sum scale b. life-style inventory c. semantic differential scale d. graphic intensity e. percentage scale

Answer: (c) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 283

30. The "halo effect" is best avoided by: a. doing a couple of things wrong during the entire research project b. flipping favorable and unfavorable endpoints on different scale items c. flipping "bad" scales to the back of the survey to encourage a good response before the respondents get to the bad questions d. using only percentage scales e. using only closed-ended questions

Answer: (b) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 283

31. Which of the following scaled-response formats is good for measuring store, company, or brand images because profiles may be generated to easily depict the image? a. constant sum scale b. lifestyle inventory c. semantic differential scale d. image analysis scales e. None of the above

Answer: (c) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 283

32. Some researchers believe that a mid-point, or neutral position, should NOT be included in a scale question because: a. it violates the statistical assumption of symmetry b. it creates an odd number c. it allows respondents to dodge or hide their feelings d. it creates a problem in trying to code the scale items e. it creates a problem in terms of how you value the mid-point in the calculation of statistics

Answer: (c) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 286

33. Using a line or pictures to indicate the intensity of response would be used in which type of scaled-response question formats? a. graphic rating scale b. line/pictorial scale c. staple scale d. itemized rating scale e. intensity scale

Answer: (a) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 286

34. A question on a survey asks "How many of the following kitchen appliances are in your kitchen?" and respondents are given a list of appliances and asked to check all those that apply. The researcher who counts the number of checks and adds them up to measure the construct "kitchen appliance ownership" would be using a(n): a. demographic scale b. anchored scale c. Likert scale d. summated scale e. graphic intensity scale

Answer: (d) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 287

35. A scale consists of 5 points and there are labels only on each end of the 5-point continuum. This is an example of a(n): a. minimal labeled 5-point scale b. 5-point unanchored scale c. summated scale d. graphic rating scale e. anchored scale

Answer: (e) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 289

36. Reader's Digest conducts an annual survey across 18 different European countries and asks respondents to rate brands across 30 product categories. The questions ask the consumers to rate the brands from 1 to 5 on each of the following: quality, value, strong image, and understanding consumer needs. This is an example of: a. an anchored scale b. an unanchored scale c. a summated scale d. a staple scale e. a graphic intensity scale

Answer: (b) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 289

37. Which of the following best illustrates the concept of reliability of measurement? a. the tendency to respond in the same manner to different questions b. the ability of the measurement to elicit an identical or very similar response from the same person with successive administrations c. the ability to repeat the same response time and again to different questions d. a measure that is truthful e. a measurement that is relative to what actually is

Answer: (b) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 290

38. If a question is designed to measure a construct, say "intentions to buy a new product," and the question appears to ask this in a straightforward manner, the measurement would be said to have: a. reliability b. validity c. face validity d. appearance value e. None of the above

Answer: (c) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 290

39. Validity is best illustrated by which of the following statements? a. accuracy or truthfulness of the measurement b. the extent to which the reliability coefficient approaches .5 c. the ability to repeat measurements d. tendency to respond in the same manner to different questions e. None of the above

Answer: (a) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 290

40. Which type of validity is concerned with the degree to which a measurement "looks like" its measuring that which it is intended to measure? a. face validity b. predictive validity c. convergent validity d. discriminant validity e. relative validity

Answer: (a) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 290

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

41. A measurement of the construct of customer satisfaction should be valid, meaning that it should actually measure how satisfied customers are.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 268

42. A 5-point scale that is "anchored" means that each scale point is given a verbal description.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 269

43. An open-ended question presents no response options to the respondent.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 270

44. A multiple category, closed-ended question has more than two response options.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 271

45. All scaled-response questions must be labeled.

Answer: (False) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 271

46. Sometimes the nature of the property being measured determines the question response format, that is, gender is either male or female; a dichotomous, closed ended format is appropriate.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 271

47. All response formats are easy and straightforward. All consumers should be able to answer any of them and, therefore, ability of the respondent is not really a consideration in determining the response format.

Answer: (False) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 272

48. We attempt to measure the properties—sometimes called attributes or qualities—of objects.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 273

49. Subjective properties are observable and tangible.

Answer: (False) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 274

50. A scale that is simply "yes" or "no" is said to have origin.

Answer: (False) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 275

51. The terms greater than or less than refer to the scale characteristic known as order.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 275

52. When the distances between scale descriptors are absolute and known, the scale is said to possess the characteristic of description.

Answer: (False) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 275

53. Categorical scales represent scales that are either nominal or ordinal.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 276

54. Metric scales represent scales that are either nominal or ordinal.

Answer: (False) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 276

55. When a scale has a "true zero," it is a nominal scale.

Answer: (False) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 276

56. Because the highest level scale, ratio, possesses all of the scale characteristics, we should use ratio scales for only research purposes.

Answer: (False) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 279

57. Scaled-response questions are best suited for unobservable constructs.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 279

58. Because every research project is different, it is wise to develop a new and novel scale format to suit the particular needs of the existing situation.

Answer: (False) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 280

59. A scale that asks consumers the extent to which they agree or disagree with the statement that Levi's 501 are good looking is a modified Likert scale.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 281

60. The lifestyle inventory is a special application of the modified Likert scale in that it measures activities, interests, and opinions using the Likert question form.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 281

61. The constant sum scale is regarded as the best scale for identifying differences in images between companies, stores, or brands.

Answer: (False) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 283

62. A consumer likes the restaurant Red Lobster and so answers "Very Satisfied" to a survey about many dimensions of the restaurant without really paying attention to each specific dimension, such as price, product quality, atmosphere, and so on. This is an example of what is known as the "halo effect."

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 284

63. One of the appealing aspects of the semantic differential scale is that the researcher may compute averages and then plot them on the scale creating a "profile" of the object being measured, that is, store, brand, and so on.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 284

64. Different cultures tend to respond differently to scales, and a scale developed in Western culture may not be automatically transferred to other cultures.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 285

65. All scaled-response formats must have a middle, neutral response option.

Answer: (False) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 286

66. A completely symmetric scale is one that has the same number of "positive" scale positions as "negative" scale positions.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 286

67. Marketing researchers have commonly used methods of measuring certain constructs such as importance, store image, and intention to purchase.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 287

68. An unreliable measure will obtain different responses from respondents who have identical feelings or opinions. Therefore, the marketing researcher cannot place any faith in unreliable measures; they are meaningless numbers.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 290

69. A scale that measures a construct, say satisfaction, by stating "Please rate your satisfaction with brand x on a scale from 1 to 10" is an example of an anchored scale.

Answer: (False) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 289

70. Researchers agree that a 5-point scale is the optimum number of scale positions to use to measure constructs.

Answer: (False) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 289

71. A respondent has an income of less than $10,000 but states he earns more than $100,000 during an interview. This is an example of low-reliability.

Answer: (False) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 290

72. Face validity simply means that the measurement "looks like" it's measuring what it is intended to measure.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Easy) Page: 290

73. It is possible to have a reliable measure that is invalid.

Answer: (True) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 290

74. Reliable and valid scales are useful in marketing research but they do not represent any kind of ethical issue for marketing researchers.

Answer: (False) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 290

APPLICATION QUESTIONS

75. In a survey for ACME Electric Co., Ralph Thomas asks the following questions: "What is your gender? Male –Female" and "How much do you estimate your monthly electric bill to be? $___." In the first question regarding gender, the answers are composed of a small number of distinct values or categories. In the second question, the answers are composed of numbers that have an "underlying measurement continuum." How would you classify these two questions in terms of the type of scale each represents? a. closed ended, scaled response b. closed ended, semantic dollar scale c. categorical, meteorological d. categorical, metric e. closed ended, metric

Answer: (d) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 276

76. Rick Irizarry of Irizarry Insurance Company is conducting a survey of potential customers. One of his questions asks how much customers would be willing to pay in annual premium for a $100,000 life insurance policy in the following way: Check appropriate category: ___ $1 to $10 month ___ $11 to $20 month ___ $21 to $30 month ___ $31 to $40 month ___ $41 to $50 month

Rick should consider the level of the measurement scale to be: a. nominal b. ordinal c. interval d. ratio e. None of the above

Answer: (c) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 276

77. Rick Irizarry of Irizarry Insurance Company is conducting a survey of potential customers. Age is an important issue in determining life insurance premiums. Rick considers asking for age in the following way: ___ 16 to 19 ___ 20 to 25 ___ 26 to 35 ___ 36 to 50 ___ over 50

Rick should consider the level of the measurement scale to be: a. nominal b. ordinal c. interval d. ratio e. age-related

Answer: (b) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 276

78. Rick Irizarry of Irizarry Insurance Company is conducting a survey of potential customers. Age is an important issue in determining life insurance premiums. Rick considers asking for age in the following way: How old are you? ___ years?

Rick should consider the level of the measurement scale to be: a. nominal b. ordinal c. interval d. ratio e. categorical

Answer: (d) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 277
79. Sandra Catrioni is a research analyst at Spellman Research Associates. She has just completed a study of customers for Brennan's, a department store in Tulsa, Oklahoma. She has asked the question, "How much do you believe you spend on an average trip to a department store?" She realizes that the level of the measurement scale of the answer is ratio. However, for her client's presentation, she wants to create categories of the answers and put them in a bar chart. The categories will be of unequal amounts. That is, the first category will be "Less than $10" and the second category will be "$10 to $25," and so on. What effect will this have on the measurement level of the new variable she will create containing the categories? a. nothing; once a ratio scale, always a ratio scale b. the ratio scale will now become an ordinal scale c. the ratio scale will not become an interval scale d. the ratio scale will become a nominal scale e. the ratio scale will become a bar chart scale

Answer: (b) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 275

80. Agnes Montgomery is the director of marketing for Ideal Plastics, Inc. Ideal has distributors all over the world. Last year, Agnes developed a system for measuring the distributors' satisfaction levels with Ideal on 20 different dimensions. Each dimension of company service, such as "Return Policy" and "Ease of Placing an Order," was evaluated by the distributors on a semantic differential scale ranging from "Very Satisfied" to "Very Dissatisfied." Now, several months after implementing the system, Agnes has data to analyze. She noticed that the Asian countries seemed to have different means from the countries in the UK, United States, and western Europe. Agnes looked carefully at the actual scores and saw that Asian distributors seemed to have much stronger feelings, either positively or negatively. Agnes should: a. immediately conduct some exploratory research within the Asian division to determine why he mean scores are so different b. take aggressive action in the Asian division by changing the companies procedures on all the service dimensions having lower means than the other divisions c. view the results between countries with major cultural differences cautiously because different cultural influences affect how individuals respond to scales d. view the results among countries with similar cultures cautiously because differences in means on service dimensions are likely due to reference group influences instead of real differences in company performance e. All of the above

Answer: (c) Difficulty: (Difficult) Page: 285

81. Erik Cartman just took a new position with Colorado Research, Inc. Erik's first customer, the president of a local bank, wanted a bank image study to be conducted that measured not only the client's banks' image but that of his competitors as well. In designing the research project, Erik talked to several of his friends one night about how they viewed their banks. Erik charged the client for this and billed it as "Exploratory Research—Focus Group." The next day Erik tried to remember most of what his friends had told him. Some of the issues were "closeness to home" of branch locations, "cool online banking," and "friendly tellers." Erik took these issues and made up some of his own and put them into a semantic differential scale format. After the research study Erik wrote a report and referred to the semantic differential scale he devised as a "Standard Marketing Research Scale to Measure the Construct of Bank Image." What Erik did was: a. correct; he used exploratory research to generate most of the items for his measurement of bank image b. correct; although he used some of his own opinions, they were based upon experience and he did make use of a focus group c. incorrect; the measurement of bank image was incorrect as bank image should be measured only by using Likert scales d. incorrect; we do not know if the scale Mr. Cartman devised was valid or reliable but he was unethical in presenting the measurement as "standard marketing research" e. correct; Erik saved considerable time and money by creating his own measurement of the construct

Answer: (d) Difficulty: (Moderate) Page: 290…...

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...Nneka Osuagwu American Government August 13, 2014 Burn, Baby, Burnnnn I don’t believe flag-burning is a violation of any law, and correlates with the first amendment. The first amendment states that congress shall make no law regarding an establishment of a religion, abridging the right to freedom of speech or of the press, or the right of people to assemble and petition against the government. The Flag Protection Act was created in opposition to the first amendment, and violated our rights. The destruction of the flag is not to soil the good name of our nation, but to protest certain government policies. Some Americans may feel that flag-burning is disrespectful not only towards our country, but directly to them. They may start to feel offended, but the government cannot prohibit the expression of ideas or freedom of speech just because the ideas are a bit offensive. The first amendment clearly states that congress shall make no law abridging the right to freedom of speech or press. The government cannot diminish our rights the moment we do something they do not like. The amendments were created in order to guarantee basic rights to all Americans, rights that the government cannot take from us. The Flag Protection Act was created in order to strip us from one of our rights, which is very unconstitutional. The destruction of the flag by citizens of America is not done to tarnish the name of our country or to offend other citizens, it’s done to protest certain......

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Burn

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Robert Burns

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