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Richard Ching
Biology 141 Exam 1 Study Questions 1-15

1. What is the difference between an hypothesis and a scientific Theory? Between an hypothesis and a prediction? What kinds of hypotheses are useful for scientific investigations that try to explain the natural world, and which are not? Give one or more examples of hypotheses that are and are not scientifically useful.

A scientific theory is an explanation for a broad class of phenomena or observations, whereas a hypothesis is a testable statement to explain the workings of a particular scientific theory. In other words, a hypothesis aims to find out how a phenomena occurs. What distinguishes a hypothesis from a prediction is that a prediction is simply a part of a hypothesis, and is an observable or measureable result that must hold true if the hypothesis is correct. A hypothesis is useful to a scientific investigation in the case that it can be tested and have results gathered from experimentation or observation, while hypotheses that cannot be tested and concluded upon are not useful. An example of a useful hypothesis is the question of whether or not cramming increases test performance when compared to consistent studying, and an example of a hypothesis that is not scientifically useful would be the question of whether God truly exists.

2. Two of the greatest unifying ideas in biology (i.e., concepts that account for and are consistent with a very large number of observations) are the Cell Theory, and the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. Most scientific Theories have two components: the pattern component and the process component. What are the two components of Cell Theory and of the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection? What are the two conditions required by the process component of evolutionary theory?

The pattern component of the cell theory is all organisms are comprised of…...

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