In: Business and Management

Submitted By osamajjk
Words 14114
Pages 57




1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Benzene in the atmosphere 1.2 Emissions of benzene 1.3 Atmospheric chemistry and transport 1.4 Benzene ambient air concentrations 1.5 Current National Standards and Guidelines 1.6 Summary 1.7 References

2. RISK ASSESSMENT Scope 2.1. 2.2 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6

Human exposure to benzene Health Effects National and other Health-based Air Quality Guidelines Evaluation of human health risks Recommendations for developing limit values Reference

2. ASSESSMENT METHODS Scope 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Description of monitoring methods 3.3 Network design and siting criteria 3.4 Other assessment techniques: air quality modelling 3.5 Data quality objectives 3.6 Random or continuous measurements 3.7 Information on air quality to the public 3.8 Upper and lower assessment thresholds 3.9 Summary 3.10 References


4 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Results of economic analysis 4.3 Discussion

5 DISCUSSION AND FINAL RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Summary of Chapters 1-4 5.2 Considerations to be taken into account in setting limit values for benzene 5.3 Options for consideration 5.4 Reviewing limit values



Council Directive on Ambient Air Quality Assessment and Management Working Group on Benzene

Benzene: Preface


Scope At the meeting of the Steering Group of National Experts on Air Quality in July 1995 it was agreed that woring groups would be established to produce position papers in preparation for development of daughter legislation under the Council Directive 96/62/EC on Ambient Air Quality Assessment and Management. The present…...

Similar Documents

Hydraulic Fracturing least one of the toxic or carcinogenic B.T.E.X. chemicals — benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene. The companies used the highest volume of fluids containing one or more carcinogens in Colorado, Oklahoma and Texas. Their initial report found the 32.2 million of gallons of diesel, which contains benzene, were injected into the ground from 2005-2009 in violation of the Drinking Water Act. (Urbina, 2011) However, recently the EPA has released findings that chemical compounds likely associated with the fracking process had been found in the groundwater beneath Pavilion, Wyoming. EPA scientists found high levels of benzene, synthetic glycol and alcohol, commonly found in hydraulic fracturing fluid. The EPA's findings provide the first official confirmation of contamination as a result of fracking operations. Air Contamination Natural gas operations can produce smog-forming pollutants. One group of emissions associated with natural gas development and production, are the emissions associated with combustion. These emissions include particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxide, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Another group of emissions that are routinely vented into the atmosphere are those linked with natural gas itself, which is composed of methane, ethane, liquid condensate, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The VOCs that are especially impactful on health are benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene. Health effects of exposure to these chemicals......

Words: 1879 - Pages: 8


...(ONGC) and Mangalore Refineries & Petrochemicals Limited (MRPL) for setting up an aromatics complex at Mangalore in Mangalore 'Special Economic Zone (MSEZ). OMPL will be a private sector company with ONGC and MRPL holding 49% of the equity capital of the company while the balance 51% equity will be offered to Strategic/ financial investors and retail investors. OMPL was incorporated on 19th December 2006 and its registered office is at 7/24, Cunningham Road, Bangalore, India. Authorized share capital of the Company is Rs 2000 crore (around USD 500 million). OMPL is setting up ban aromatics complex in MSEZ adjacent to the existing refinery of MRPL. The plant will produce 913,700 MT per annum of para-Xylene and about 283,100 MT per annum of Benzene. This complex will get its feedstock, mainly naphtha and aromatic streams from the MRPL refinery. OMPL will enter into a feedstock sourcing arrangement with MRPL for continuous supply of naphtha and other streams. The project is expected to start commercial operation by 2012. 442 acres of land for the complex has already been acquired on long term lease basis from MSEZ and site development work has already started. 1.2 Promoters 1.2.1 Oil & Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) ONGC is the largest oil exploration company in India and is the largest "Navratna" PSU . ONGC is the only fully—integrated petroleum company in India, operating along the entire hydrocarbon value chain holding largest share of hydrocarbon acreages in India. ONGC......

Words: 8223 - Pages: 33

Organic Chemisty

...Hydrogenation 5. Hydrohalogenation 6. Halogenation 7. Hydration (keto-enol tautomerization) 8. Reaction of acidic terminal hydrogen (acid-base reaction) Alkyl Halides Preparation: 1. Addition of halogen halide to alkenes 2. Reaction of phosphorus and sulfur halides with alcohols Reaction: 3. Hydrolysis 4. Williamson ether synthesis 5. Nitrile formation 6. Amine formation 7. Alkene formation 8. Grignard formation Phenols Preparation: 1. Pyrolysis of sodium benzene sulfonate 2. Dow process 3. Air oxidation of cumene Reaction: 4. Neutralization 5. Ester formation 6. Ether formation 7. Halogenation 8. Nitration 9. Sulfonation 10. Kolbe reaction Aromatic Compounds Reaction: 1. Halogenation 2. Nitration 3. Sulfonation 4. Friedel-Crafts alkylation 5. Friedel-Crafts acylation 6. Birch reduction Aryl Halides Preparation: 1. Halogenation of benzene 2. Sandmeyer reaction Reaction: 3. Grignard reaction 4. Hydrolysis 5. Amination Ether Preparation: 1. Sulfuric acid process 2. Williamson synthesis Reaction: 3. Cleavage 4. Protonation Alcohols Preparation: 1. Hydration of alkenes 2. Hydroboration-oxidation 3. Reduction of aldehydes and ketones 4. Reduction of carboxylic acids 5. Reduction of esters 6. Grignard reagent with aldehydes and ketones Reaction: 7. Neutralization 8.......

Words: 623 - Pages: 3


...Aspen Problems Sheet I 1. Mixer-Splitter A 100 kg/hr stream of benzene at 35oC and a 200 kg/hr stream of toluene at 50oC are mixed in a mixer. The stream leaving the above mixture is split into two streams with the split fraction of 0.4. Determine the flowrates, composition and temperature of the streams leaving the splitter. 2. Separation unit A mixture of benzene and toluene is separated using a single stage separation unit. Feed enters at 800C and 2 atm with a flowrate of 100 kmol/hr having 0.8 mole fraction of benzene. 80 % of benzene entering and 20 % of toluene entering are recovered into the bottom product. separator 3. Flash separator An equimolar mixture (100 kg mole /hr) of methanol and water at 180 oF and 20 psi is flashed adiabatically at 1 atm. Determine the fraction of methanol in the vapour stream leaving the flash. 4. Absorption column In an experiment, 33.8 kmol of ammonia-air mixture per hour is scrubbed continuously using water entering at a flow rate of 1781 kmol/hr in counter-current mode in a 6 plate absorption column. The gaseous mixture contains 25% ammonia by volume and is admitted at 30oC and 1 atm pressure into the tower. Determine the composition of the gaseous and liquid stream leaving the absorber. 5. Extraction column 100 kg/sec of an acetic acid-water solution containing 30% acid is extracted in a counter current 6 plate extractor with 40 kg/sec of isopropyl ether as the solvent. Determine the composition of the extract and raffinate phases......

Words: 434 - Pages: 2


...1. 1 H NMR spectra for all five possible amide products plus the amide that would be obtained using 4>nitrobenzoyl chloride and isopropylamine are posted on Blackboard. Identify each (i.e. spectrum A corresponds to 3>methylbenzamide). Briefly explain your reasoning in each case, and assign all NMR signals. m-Methylisopropylbenzamide – 2 – Because This HNMR has 15 total hydrogens and exhibits three unique peaks in the benzene ring region. p-Methylisopropylbenzamide – 4 – Because this hnmr has 15 total hydrogens, exhibits two unique peaks, and has a more shielded peak with three hydrogens. p-Methoxyisopropylbenzmide – 6 – Because this hnmr has 15 total hydrogens, exhibits two unique peaks, and has a less shielded peak with three hydrogens. p-Chloroisopropylbenzamide – 3 – Because this hnmr has 12 total hydrogens and has benzene associated peaks that are more shielded. Isopropylbenzamide - 1 – Because this HNMR has 13 total hydrogens. P-nitroisopropylbenzamide – 5 – Because this HNMR has 12 total hydrogens and has benzene associated peaks that are less shielded. 2. Primary amides show two strong bands in the region between 1700 and 1600 cm>1. Why two, and to what process does each correspond at the molecular level (e.g. CO bending)? The lower signal is from the resonance structures inherit from a primary amide while the higher signal is from the effects of induction. Due to resonance and induction, The carbon atom bears a large partial positive......

Words: 270 - Pages: 2


...freezing temperature by mean temperature on the graph that had a fairly constant temperature. For Part 2, get a test tube that has the melted solution in it. After that, repeat the steps stated above starting at the part that says fastening the test tube to the clamp and lowering it into the beaker. After ten minutes, use the graph to find the freezing point of the solution. Data: Mass of lauric acid 7.46 g Mass of benzoic acid 1.32g Freezing Temperature of pure lauric acid 43.13°C Freezing Point of the benzoic acid-lauric acid mixture 36.63°C Analysis of Data: • Molality T = Kf *m T = 43.13°C-36.63°C T=6.5°C 6.5=(3.9 °C kg/mol)(m) m= 1.67 mol/kg • Moles of Benzene m=moles of Benzene/kg lauric acid 1.67=moles of Benzene /.00746 Moles of Benzene=.0125 moles • Experimental Molar Mass mm= mass benzoic acid/moles benzoic acid mm= 1.32g/.0125 moles mm= 106g/mol • Actual Molar Mass C7H6O2 C=12.011*7 H=1.0079*6 O=16.00*2 122.1244g/mole • Percent Error Actual – Expected /Actual *100 106-122.1244* 100 122.1244 Percent Error=13.2 % Application of Results to a Larger Context: One potential source of error is in determining the freezing point. Although for lauric acid the average of the portion of the graph when the solution was freezing was used, determining which part of the graph to use was difficult. Another source of error concerned the solutions. Although great care was taken to prevent any......

Words: 529 - Pages: 3


...1016/j.jpba.2010.09.006. Epub 2010 Sep 15. A general static-headspace gas chromatographic method for determination of residual benzene in oral liquid pharmaceutical products. Liu H, Tang Q, Markovich RJ, Rustum AM. Source Global Quality Services-Analytical Sciences, Merck & Co., Inc., Union, NJ 07083, USA. Abstract Sodium benzoate is used in oral liquid pharmaceutical products for its anti-microbial properties. The benzoate salts present in liquid pharmaceutical products can potentially generate residual levels of free benzene during manufacturing of the drug product and or during the shelf-life of the product under its storage conditions. To ensure the safety and quality of the pharmaceutical products (containing benzoate in the formulation), a selective and sensitive analytical method is required to monitor residual benzene in oral liquid pharmaceutical products. In this paper, we report the development and validation of a general static-headspace gas chromatographic (SH-GC) method to determine residual benzene in oral liquid pharmaceutical products. The liquid pharmaceutical drug product sample is dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in a GC headspace vial. A DB-624 capillary column (30 m x 0.32 mm I.D. and 1.8 μm film thickness) was used under isothermal conditions with a flame ionization detection (FID). The benzene peak was well separated from all other volatile compounds that are present in the formulation of a number of liquid drug......

Words: 1181 - Pages: 5

Fracking, Is Good for the Economy

...roads it bar fort have a hard time getting to they actually have to call the border patrol claudia lauren forcement. the unique situations did it has create it. They are in the wide open. Fracking opposition has been strong in isolated locations across the world. Bans or moratoriums are in place in Bulgaria, France, Germany, and South Africa. Protesters are blocking Fracking operations in England and Poland. Selected US states and communities have imposed Fracking bans. One of the chemicals they use in the frocking is benzene now according to OSHA benzene is a component which is a derivative from cold and petroleum and is found in gasoline and other fuels. Benzene is used in the manufacturing of plastics detergents Poseidon other chemicals. With exposures from less than 5 to 30 years individuals have developed and died from leukemia. Long-term exposure may affect bone marrow and blood production. Short term exposure to high levels of benzene can cause drowsiness dizziness unconsciousness and death. according to OSHA Occupational Health and Safety organization. Another great chemical they use in the Fracking process is lead. That was banned in 1977 by the Environmental Protection Agency. Lead is a naturally occurring material that is in the Earth's crust. it was also use in gasoline as an octane booster but environmental exposure concerns result in the gradual phase out of gasoline in the United States. Organic lead compounds continue to be used in high octane......

Words: 1190 - Pages: 5

Cetane Number Effect on the Diesel Engine

...smoother engine operation. In Present case Butanol and Benzene are used as the additives of the fuel considering all the parameters mentioned above. S no | property | diesel | Benzene | Butanol | 1 | Flash point | 52 c | 20 c | 35 c | 2 | Density(g/cm3) | .85 | .87 | .81 | 3 | Energy(BTU/gal) | 136567 | 128320 | 105000 | 4 | Cetane number | 50 | 68-72 | 17 | Table 3.1 properties of fuels 3.6 Butanol Butanol (also butyl alcohol) refers to a four-carbon alcohol with a formula C4H9OH. There are four possible isomeric structures for Butanol, from a straight-chain primary alcohol to a branched-chain tertiary alcohol.[1] It is primarily used as a solvent, as an intermediate in chemical synthesis, and as a fuel. It is sometimes also called bio Butanol when produced biologically. Fig 3.1 Butanol structure Butanol has only a OH bond opening at the end and breaking the oxygen bond is very hard. So it is not easy to burn the Butanol so it is used to lower the cetane numbers of the fuel it is mixed with. To know how much butanol varies the cetane number two compositions of the butanol are mixed with diesel. These are the compositions used to alter the cetane number accordingly. Compositions:- Fuel blend 1:- Diesel (900ml) + Butanol (100ml) Fuel blend 2 :- Diesel (800ml) + Butanol (200ml) 3.7 Benzene: Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the......

Words: 8545 - Pages: 35

Production of Benzene

...Benzene Benzene is a material used at the start and is used as a building for many other aromatic materials. These chemicals include ethyl benzene, phenol and styrene. Smaller amounts of benzene can be used to make a wide range of materials. However benzene is a known carcinogen (chemical that causes cancer) .so continual exposure of this carcinogen benzene vapour can result in leukaemia. Benzene has a rather dull appearance as it appears as a colourless liquid although it does have a sweet odour. It is also highly flammable and is formed in human activities and natural processes. It evaporates in to air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water. Natural sources of benzene include forest fires and volcanoes. Benzene is also a component of crude oil, petrol and cigarette smoke. Structure of benzene • Benzene is a flat molecule with 6 carbons atoms bonded together in a Planar ring so is also a cyclic hydrocarbon. • Each carbon is covalently joined to two other carbons and one hydrogen. So there are 3 covalent bonds all together. • The remaining outer electron of each carbon is shared with the other carbons in the ring. The six electrons are delocalised around the ring this gives stability to the structure and hold it in place. • All bond lengths are the same. • IT ALSO IS COLOULERLESS SO IS NOT VERY USEFUL AND IS EXTREMLY EXPLOSIVE AND HAS LOW FLAMIBILITY Kekule structure of benzene Kekule was the first to suggest a sensiSSble structure for benzene. The......

Words: 400 - Pages: 2

Environmental Impact of a Foam Cup

...concentration of refineries in the world. It is from the refinery that we get transportation fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. It is also where we get raw materials for the chemical industry. For the production of plastics we get naphtha, which are 5 to 9 carbon chains that can be used as the raw material in a plant to make ethylene and benzene. Benzene and ethylene are subsequently reacted in another plant to make styrene. Refineries are large, energy-intensive plants which have a significant environmental impact. They generate greenhouse gases due to their high energy use, many refineries, particularly older ones, have had issues with hydrocarbon contamination of surrounding soil and water, and all refineries have had periods of volatile organic compound (VOC’s) releases to the atmosphere. And while we don’t use the transportation fuels for production of our foam cup, they are the largest product of the refinery, and the impact to the environment of the use of fuels for transportation includes greenhouse gas emissions, sulfur and nitrogen compounds, and smog. Manufacturing After ethylene is reacted with benzene to make styrene monomer, the properties of plastic start to evolve. Styrene monomer is highly reactive, and in the presence of a catalyst can be polymerized, which basically means addition, to make polystyrene plastic. This plastic is clear and brittle. To make a Foam cup, the polystyrene is expanded by blowing air into it. Expanded......

Words: 994 - Pages: 4


...tertiary amides are the compounds which one or both hydrogens in primary amides are replaced by other groups. The names of secondary and tertiary amides are denoted by the replaced groups with the prefix capital N (meaning nitrogen) prior to the names of parent amides. Low molecular weight amides are soluble in water due to the formation of hydrogen bonds. primary amides have higher melting and boiling points than secondary and tertiary amides. Anilide is an amide derived from aniline by substitution of an acyl group for the hydrogen of NH2. Acetanilide is from acetic acid and aniline. Acetanilide is an odourless, white flake solid or crystalline powder (pure form); soluble in hot water alcohol, ether, chloroform, acetone, glycerol, and benzene;; melting point 114 C and boiling point 304 C; can undergo self-ignite at 545 C, but is otherwise stable under most conditions. Acetanilide which can be obtained by acetylation of aniline undergoes nitration at low temperature and yields highly the para-nitro products. Acetyl group can then be removed by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis to yield para-nitroaniline. Although the activating affection of the amino group can be reduced, the acetyl derivative remains an ortho/para-orientation and activating substituent. Examples of aromatic anilide are benzanilide, C6H5NHCOC6H5 or Carbanilide (N,N'-diphenylcarbamide). Some structural amides are; * Acetamides * Acrylamides * Anilides * Benzamides * Naphthylamides * Formamides * Lactams......

Words: 3103 - Pages: 13

Amino Acid Lab Report

...Identification of Unknown Amino Acid Elizabeth Amundson Lab Partner: Mary Witucki Introduction: The goal of this lab was to determine which two amino acids where contained within an unknown mixture by comparing the results of a primary amine test, an amide test, a benzene ring test, a thiol test, and paper chromatography to that of amino acids with known compositions. I hypothesize that alanine and lysine will test positive for primary amines because they are the only amino acids being tested in this reaction that contain a primary amine (-NH2). I hypothesize that glutamine will test positive for amides because it is the only amino acid being tested in this reaction that has an amide, or (R1-N-R2). I hypothesize that tryptophan will test positive for benzene rings because it is the only amino acid being tested that contains a benzene ring. I hypothesize that cysteine will test positive for thiols because it is the only amino acid being tested with a thiol, or (R-S-H). I also hypothesize that the hydrophilic amino acids will have smaller Rf values than the hydrophobic amino acids because the chromatography paper is more hydrophilic than the solvent being used, so they will have a higher affinity for the paper and will not travel very far with the solvent. It is important to be able to identify unknown amino acids so that it can be determined which amino acids are found in cells and proteins. Methods: Paper Chromatography 1. Pick either unknown A, B, or C. ...

Words: 1093 - Pages: 5

Coca Cola

...removed from the coke oven gas and is fractionated to recover benzene, toluene, and xylene. Some facilities may include an onsite tar Waste Characteristics The coke oven is a major source of fugitive air emissions. The coking process emits particulate matter (PM); volatile organic compounds (VOCs); polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); methane, at approximately 100 grams per metric ton (g/t) of coke; ammonia; carbon monoxide; hydrogen sulfide (50–80 g/t of coke from pushing operations); hydrogen cyanide; and sulfur oxides, SOx (releasing 30% of sulfur in the feed). Significant amount of VOCs may also be released in by-product recovery operations. For every ton of coke produced, approximately 0.7 to 7.4 kilograms (kg) of PM, 2.9 kg of SOx (ranging from 0.2 to 6.5 kg), 1.4 kg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 0.1 kg of ammonia, and 3 kg of VOCs (including 2 kg of benzene) may be released into the atmosphere if there is no vapor recovery system. Coal-handling operations may account for about 10% of the particulate load. Coal charging, coke pushing, and quenching are major sources of dust emissions. Wastewater is generated at an average rate ranging from 0.3 to 4 cubic meters (m3) per ton of coke processed. Major wastewater streams are generated from the cooling of the coke oven gas and the processing of ammonia, tar, naphthalene, phenol, and light oil. Process wastewater may contain 10 milligrams per liter (mg/l) of benzene, 1,000 mg/l of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (4 kg/t of......

Words: 2432 - Pages: 10


...Define the following. Saponification Functional Group Isomerism 2. Explain how will you prepare following. Carbolic Acid from Benzene Acetaldehyde from acetylene Acetal from formaldehyde 3. What are phenols? How are they classified? Explain why phenols are acedic in nature. 4. What are Organometallic compounds? How will you prepare the following from methyl magnesium bromide. Vinegar Isopropyl Alcohol Ethane 5. Draw the structures and give the I.U.P.A.C names of the following. Vinyl Chloride Neo-pentae Tert-butyl methyl ether Picric acid 6 . What product or products are formed when the following compound is nitrated. Bromo Benzene Nitro Benzene 7 . What is methylated spirit? Give its composition. 8. Partial hydrogenation of 2-Butyne forms two geometrical isomers. Write the equation and the condition necessary to obtain these isomers. 9. –COOH and –CN groups deactivate the benzene ring. a. Which property of these groups causes this deactivation? b. Giving a suitable example compare the directive influence of –NO2 and –Cl group, when attached with benzene. (OR) Benzene is a highly unsaturated compound, but it does not give addition reaction with bromine even in the presence of Lewis acid. Name and explain the process which gives this extra stability to benzene. Q.10 . a. In the preparation of alkyl halides from alcohols SOCl2 is the best reagent. Which solvent is......

Words: 492 - Pages: 2

アドベンチャー | Hello Neighbor | Why silver? :)Picture needs to be updated

2018 Mid-Autumn Festival &National Day 2018 Mid-Autumn Festival notice 2018 Dragon Boat Festival Notice 2018 Qing Ming Festival holiday Notice The 2018 Chinese Spring Festival Holiday 2017 Chinese National Day Holiday Notice 2017 Dragon Boat Festival Notice 2017 Labor Day Holiday Notice more