Premium Essay

Autonomy in Hamlet and Oedipus

In: Novels

Submitted By handbag102
Words 952
Pages 4
For their injustices, Oedipus must be exiled from Thebes: Socrates must drink hemlock and die. Discuss the extent to which Oedipus’ and Socrates’ final moments are determined by past acts of autonomy.

Socrates is a character who is seen as person who dies for his ideals. He sees himself as a public servant who has lived his life helping the people of the city with his practice of philosophy and by living his life within the boundaries of the laws and justices of society. Socrates sees this as a commitment by an invisible contract and he must commit himself to obey them even though these laws have wronged him. He is urged by his friend Crito to escape but Socrates feels that this would be wrong as it is going against state, country and his life’s work he states, “I am not able to abandon the arguments I previously made, now that this misfortune has befallen me”, (Plato, 2007, p. 40). Socrates does not blame the law that convicted him but the people, (Plato, 2007, p. 47), so for him to run away from his sentence would be a renunciation of Athenian law, structure and honour, which has conceived him and given him education, (Plato, 2007, p. 45). Socrates argument through Plato’s work resonates to the reader that constitution, integrity, institutions and laws are the most valuable properties to human kind and because of this we can say that Socrates is a martyr for his causation rather than a lawless citizen who hates the governing system. If Socrates chooses to go against the governing system, he would have to be disloyal to his own conscience, he states “ whoever is a destroyer of the laws would certainly be considered in some way a destroyer of young and foolish men”, (Plato, 2007, p. 46). For him death is a price he has to pay to uphold his social contract with Athens and to make the legal system strong as he failed to convince those who sentenced him, so he…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Oedipus

...of the plots conflict. Oedipus is about a man that leaves his city of Corinth after he is told he is going to kill his father and have sex with his mother. Scared he leaves for another city called Thebes. At the cross roads he meet an old man and five of his servants. They were picking on him so enraged he killed the old man and four of the servants. The one servant that lived went back went back and told Queen Jocasta that her husband was killed by a bunch of thieves. Oedipus still on his way to Thebes he meets and defects a Sphix. Now seen as a hero the people of Thebes worship him. Jocasta still needing a new king decided to make Oedipus it. Oedipus ashamed of his past decided it was best not to tell anyone. Little did we know that he wasn’t the only one keeping secrets but queen Jocasta also had secrets from her past. Jocasts secret was that she was pregnant once before but was told that her child was going to kill his father, scared she decided to get rid of the baby. After Oedipus became king a plague hit the city making everyone sick. Wanting to get rid of the plague he sent his brother in law to find out how to get rid of it. When his brother in law returned he told Oedipus that they had to find and banish the murderer of Lauis the pervious king. Oedipus is then told by Teirresia that he was the person to kill the king. In disbelief he yells at the old man and accuses Creon of putting him up to saying that. Creon angry about what Oedipus said starts to fight......

Words: 788 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Oedipus

...Oedipus the King – STUDY GUIDE Section 1 – Greek Culture Home of the Greek Gods & Goddesses… Mount Olympus King of the Gods… Zeus Type of politics that began in Athens… Democracy God of War & Wisdom… Athena Peloponnesian War between… Athens & Sparta Wealthy landowners… Aristocrats Women were appreciated in… Sparta Most famous artist… Sculptor Women treated like slaves in… Athens City that liked poetry, writing and art… Athens Military state… Sparta Another word for slaves… helots Type of poetry written… lyric Word comes from a small harp called… lyre Greek kept literature alive by… singing Popular sports competition still done today… Olympics Winner of Olympics won… Olive Branch Section 2 – First Readings Oedipus the King Writer of Oedipus the King… Sophocles Write 120 plays but only ____ survived… Seven Tragedy means… Goat God of wine… Dionysus Lyrics chanted called dythrims chanted to… Dionysus To become king, Oedipus solved… the riddle of the sphinx Contrast between audience and character… Dramatic irony City is suffering from… plague The plague causes… Stillborn children Animals to die Crops to die Women/mothers dying Who did Oedipus send to Delphi too figure out the problem… Creon Apollo says the cause of affliction is that… the murderer of Lauis is in Thebes Blind prophet who says Oedipus is the murderer… Tiresius Oedipus says Tiresius is worthless prophet because… should have solved the riddle and saved the......

Words: 529 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Oedipus

...supernatural force. For example: Luke didn’t tie his shoes therefore he tripped & scraped his knee which made him go back home for a band-aid and he missed his bus. This might just sound like mere coincidence but many people think it’s a natural force. Some identify this force as ‘Fate’ or in religious terms, ‘God’s will’. In the play Oedipus the King, Sophocles gives a very powerful message about fate. He believes that no matter how hard one tries to escape their fate or destiny, it is just impossible. Oedipus’ fate is made when he receives a prophecy that claims he will kill his father and sleep with his mother. This fate takes course when Oedipus is already out of the way of it which proves Sophocles’ theory of being unable to escape fate. The myth which inspired Sigmund Freud, The story of Oedipus, suggests that neither the parents nor the growing child can avoid their fate (Jacobs). It is pretty vague to state that absolutely no one can escape their fate because everyone is fated to die. The fate of death supports the fact that there is something planned for the individual human being. Something no one has control over. Oedipus The King, by historical play writer, Sophocles, is a story that preaches the inevitable force of fate and the uncontrollable consequences it has when it is tried to be cheated....

Words: 329 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Hamlet

... Home > Why Hamlet Delays His Revenge Why Hamlet Delays His Revenge (Excerpt from Quintessence of Dust: The Mystical Meaning of Hamlet) Kenneth Chan ... Hamlet is finally alone, and the stage is set for the soliloquy that gave rise to one of the most persistent mysteries in literature: Why does Hamlet delay his revenge? Hamlet Ay, so, God buy you. Now I am alone. Oh, what a rogue and peasant slave am I! Is it not monstrous that this player here, But in a fiction, in a dream of passion, Could force his soul so to his whole conceit1 That from her working all his visage wanned, Tears in his eyes, distraction in his aspect, A broken voice, and his whole function suiting With forms to his conceit? And all for nothing! For Hecuba! What's Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba, That he should weep for her? What would he do Had he the motive and the cue for passion That I have? He would drown the stage with tears, And cleave the general ear with horrid speech, Make mad the guilty and appal the free,2 Confound the ignorant, and amaze indeed The very faculties of eyes and ears. Yet I, A dull and muddy-mettled3 rascal, peak Like John-a-dreams,4 unpregnant5 of my cause, And can say nothing--no, not for a king, Upon whose property and most dear life A damned defeat was made. Am I a coward? Who calls me a villain, breaks my pate across, Plucks off my beard and blows it in my face, Tweaks me by the nose, gives me the lie i'th'throat As deep as to the lungs? Who does me this? Ha, 'swounds, I should......

Words: 7854 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

Oedipus

...Irony Used By Sophocles in Oedipus The King Sophocles’ play Oedipus The King is filled with many situations of Irony from beginning to the end. There is irony in Oedipus’ name itself; also Oedipus’ entire life from birth is set up to be a tragedy spoken by the god’s. In the end of the play there is also irony in the way Oedipus becomes blind, both literally and metaphorically. Another example of irony in this play is the three-way crossroads where Oedipus slain his own father. Oedipus gets his name, as the Corinthian messenger tells us in Oedipus The King, from the fact that he was left in the mountains with his ankles pinned together. Jocasta explains that Laios abandoned him in this state on a barren mountain shortly after he was born. The injury leaves Oedipus with a vivid scar for the rest of his life. Oedipus’s injury symbolizes the way in which fate has marked him and set him apart. It also symbolizes the way his movements have been confined and constrained since birth, by Apollo’s prophecy to Laios. There is irony in the way Sophocles picks this name for Oedipus because it shows how he is marked and doomed for the rest of his life. Another instance of irony in this play is when Jocasta says that “Laios was killed by marauding strangers where three highways meet” (1081). This crossroads is referred to many different times during the play, and it symbolizes the crucial moment, long before the events of the play, when Oedipus began to fulfill the dreadful prophecy......

Words: 690 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Autonomy

... In the fall of 2011, Hewlett-Packard (HP) acquired Autonomy, an information technology software company, for $11.1 billion. Less than a year later, several top managers and Autonomy founder Mike Lynch were let go due to corporate culture differences and poor financial results. Shortly afterwards a whistleblower revealed to HP accounting improprieties that over time have forced HP to write-off over $5 billion. HP claims that Autonomy mischaracterized its audited financial statements intentionally in order to make the company more attractive to investors and potential buyers. At the center of the scandal is the method in which Autonomy recognized revenue. Autonomy mischaracterized revenue from its hardware sales as more lucrative software revenue, while hiding some of the costs for these sales as marketing expenses rather than the appropriate account costs of goods sold. HP believes that Autonomy participated in what is known as round-trips, where companies sell each other products at high prices to each other recording a lot of profit without money ever exchanging hands. These practices inflated operating profit significantly All the while Autonomy founder Mike Lynch along with other former Autonomy executives deny all accusations of wrongdoing claiming that HP are using Autonomy has a scape goat for running the company into the ground. HP has reported the situation to both the American and British authorities and investigations are ongoing. HP is currently being sued by......

Words: 718 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Oedipus and Hamlet

...awareness of a bond of love or hate" (Reeves 176). Both Oedipus and Hamlet both have qualities of Aristotle’s tragic hero. Oedipus is the main character in the play Oedipus the King. Oedipus is thought of as a tragic figure because he was doomed from birth. Tiresias, an old blind prophet, told Oedipus' parents about Oedipus' fate. He told them that Oedipus would kill his father and sleep with his mother. So, his parents decided to have him killed; only it did not happen that way. He was passed off by two shepherds and finally to the King and Queen of Corinth, Polybus and Merope to raise him as their own. Oedipus finds his way back to Thebes and on the way kills his father, but Oedipus did not know that one of the men he killed was his real father. This is the beginning of the prophecy coming true. In short Oedipus obtains the throne, marries his mother and has children with her. Oedipus' fate has come together without him even realizing what is going on. Eventually he is told what has happened and asks to be banished by his uncle/brother-in-law Creon. The tragedy in Oedipus' life began with his birth and the realization by his parents that his whole life was doomed. Oedipus’ hubris got in the way and eventually led to his own demise. However on the other hand, Hamlet did not know that his life would be a tragic one. Hamlets' fate played out through his whole life. No one knew that hamlet's life would end up the way that it did. Hamlets' life first changed when his Uncle......

Words: 1229 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Oedipus

...n Sophocles' Oedipus the King, the themes of fate and free will are very strong throughout the play. Only one, however, brought about Oedipus' downfall and death. Both points could be argued to great effect. In ancient Greece, fate was considered to be a rudimentary part of daily life. Every aspect of life depended and was based upon fate (Nagle 100). It is common belief to assume that mankind does indeed have free will and each individual can decide the outcome of his or her life. Fate and free will both decide the fate of Oedipus the King. Both sides of the argument can be greatly supported. The Greeks believed in the idea that personality of the individual greatly affected his or her life (Nagle 120). Their personality was what decides their own free will. A wise man will make good decisions in his life; an ignorant and stubborn man won't be so fortunate. The character traits of a person have a certain positive or negative affect on the choices that he or she makes. For Oedipus, one of these attributes was the desire for knowledge and truth about his own existence. This driving force in the play led to the truth of his origin. This ties in with his own aspect of free will. His free will is based on his drive for knowledge. Throughout the entire play, Oedipus pushes Tiresias, Creon, Jocasta, the oracle, the messenger, and the shepherd for information regarding his beginnings. Each one of these characters in some way or form refused to give him a thorough......

Words: 1496 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Oedipus

...People are often placed in situations where the truth needs to heard. Oedipus’ actions reveal the universal truth: the truth does not always want to be heard. In Oedipus Rex, the idea of the truth is apparent. Oedipus knows he is cursed, however, he does not want to believe it will ever occur. Oedipus goes through many crossroads, and is challenged with the truth. Tiresias, the blind prophet, is known for expressing the truth, “I say that you are Laius’ murderer – He whom you seek” (14). Oedipus refuses to believe the truth, since the blame is on him. Defensively, allegations are made by Oedipus, as soon as he does not hear the answer he intends: “Know, I am suspect you joined a hatch the deed; Yea, did it – all but slaying with your own hands” (13). Tiresias tries to convince Oedipus he is speaking the truth, however Oedipus only hears what he wants to hear. Hearing the truth can create exonerate actions. Oedipus holds onto the one detail, which would not make him the murderer, “robbers abroad / Have murdered, at a place where three roads meet” (26). However, in the back of his mind, he knows he killed a man where three roads meet, “It seems I have but now / Proffered myself to a tremendous curse” (27). This event questions the truth-seeking process Oedipus is undertaking. Accepting a role in someone’s life can be a strenuous task. Not knowing, Jocasta is a mother and a wife to Oedipus. She trusts Oedipus to hear, the oracle of Laius, “That so it should befall, that......

Words: 477 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Oedipus

...Oedipus was a mythical Greek king of Thebes, a tragic hero in the Greek mythology. Oedipus accidentally fulfilled the prophecy and despite his efforts not to, he end up killing his father and marrying his mother, and brought disaster to his city and family. It is well known that “Oedipus represents two enduring themes of Greek myth and drama: the flawed nature of humanity and an individual's role in the course of destiny in a harsh universe”. Is Oedipus character his destiny? Is what happens to Oedipus his fault, why or why not? First of all, yes, Oedipus character is his destiny. Indeed, before the play, the final outcome of the play is known before Oedipus is even born. And in fact, "his life is clouded with the presage of disaster; he was destined to one day kill his father and to become his own mother's husband". We can say that Oedipus destiny was pre-determined. No matter how good person he was, in one way or another he would have fulfilled the prophecy and end up in disaster. So, due to the prophecy, Oedipus had only a small part in his own downfall. But, what happened to Oedipus is also his fault. Indeed, he is too determined to find out who he is and it shouldn't be so important to him. He is also too proud to listen to the gods; he thinks he can get out of following through on his fate. Oedipus was a very proud man. I think his pride was his biggest character flaw and because of this pride, the conclusion of the play was tragic. To conclude, the......

Words: 291 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Oedipus

... Extract 4 (Sophocles, Oedipus the King) In Greek Tragedy the medium, as in all forms of poetry is language, to convey a story through an imitation of an action, or as Aristotle defines in S.H. Butcher’s translation of Poetics “Tragedy is a mimesis of a praxis.” (Jones, 2000). This translates to an imitation/ representation of an action. Oedipus the King is structured into five episodes with a prologue to begin, each scene is introduced by the Chorus (the citizens of Thebes) who depict the state of affairs within Thebes. The city is plagued, as a Priest describes to Oedipus “look around you, see with your own eyes- our ship pitches wildly, cannot lift her head from the depths, the red waves of death… Thebes is dying. A blight on the fresh crops and rich pastures, cattle sicken and die, and the women die in labor, children stillborn, and the plague, the fiery god of fever hurls down on the city.” (L 28 – 34) This shows us that Thebes is being punished, and Oedipus, as the King of Thebes is begged by his subjects to put an end to the curse. This shows a good use of dramatic irony, as in fact it was Oedipus who is responsible for the actions of the gods. Oedipus has two conflicts going on within him, the first is that he does not want to kill who he believes is his father, “the man who reared me” (L 916) and the second is he does not want to lay with his mother. These conflicts have followed Oedipus and his father Laius throughout the play,......

Words: 913 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Oedipus

...Day Two Journal Assignment Examples of Oedipus and Jocasta dismissing the prophecy: Jocasta: “Now, you remember the story: Laios was killed by marauding strangers where three highways meet; But his child had not been three days in this world before the King had pierced the baby’s ankles and left him to die on a lonely mountainside. Thus, Apollo never caused that child to kill his father, and it was not Laios’s fate to die at the hands of his son, as he had feared. This is what prophets and prophecies are worth! Have no dread of them.” “No. From now on, where oracles are concerned I would not waste a second thought on any.” Oedipus: “Why, “marauders”, you said, Killed the King, according to this man’s story. If he maintains that still, if there were several, Clearly the guilt is not mine: I was alone.” “He has brought this decrepit fortune-teller, this collector of dirty pennies, this prophet fraud---“ What do you think of the word “fate”? How about “free will”? How are these related, or are they? “Fate” is an individual’s unchangeable path to a certain predicted outcome. It is a word that describes the results that an individual will inevitably face due to the decisions they chose prior. “Free will” describes a person’s ability to act in a manner in however way they choose to do so in a way they see fit. It portrays actions uncontrolled and unmanipulated by no one else except for one person. I feel that-in a way- these two words are somewhat related to one another due......

Words: 526 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Oedipus

...Oedipus was great play that contained quite the drama and suspense. Basically Oedipus was abandoned by his parents at birth and brought up into another royal family. As Oedipus becomes older he takes the reign of Thebes and later tries to investigate who murdered the previous king before him. What Oedipus did not know is he himself committed the murder. See Oedipus’ fate was foreseen long ago by the greater Gods, it was said the he would kill his own father and marry his own mother. So he did, not without recognition of who his real parents were. Oedipus was shattered by what he had done so he blinded himself by the power of Apollo and Iocaste his wife/biological mother committed suicide. The prophecy revealed what Oedipus destiny would be, he tried to avoid it with his freewill. Fate played role in everyone around Oedipus and himself. When Laios and Iocaste had Oedipus they took him to the Oracle at Delphi, there they were told of Oedipus’ destiny; to kill Laios and marry Iocaste. The couple decided to pierce his feet and abandon him on a mountainside by a Shepard. The Shepard did not follow through and gave Oedipus to a herdsman from Corinth, where he was then raised by Polybus and Merope. As Oedipus grew into a man he eventually discovered that he was not their biological son and also learned of the prophecy he was given. Fate then stepped in again when Oedipus tried to outsmart his destiny by feeling to Thebes from Corinth. He then ended up at a division of three roads;...

Words: 487 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Oedipus

...In reading the story of Oedipus, I noticed the theme of fate throughout the events that occurred to Oedipus. In three occasions, Oedipus tried to be protected against the fate he was prophesized to fulfill. Jocasta, his birth mother, attempted to steer her infant son from his fate by giving him away to slaves soon after his birth. After being summoned by a grown Oedipus, the servant from Corinth also tried to protect him against the truth of his fate. Tieresias also attempted to withhold the truth of Oedipus’ fate with no success. In all three instances, I saw how Oedipus’ pride got in the way of the protection everyone was trying to offer him. Oedipus was arrogant and stubborn in his nature and believed his commands had to be obeyed by the people he summoned because he was king. He argued with Jocasta, the servant Corinth, and Teiresias when they tried to cover his fate, but his pride caused all three to tell him the hurtful truth. In the beginning of the story, Laius consults the Oracle of Apollo in order to find out why he and his wife couldn’t conceive. A prophecy came from the Oracle, telling Laius that any son they may conceive would end up killing Laius and marrying his wife. When the time came that Jocasta bore a son, she gave him away to a servant in order to leave him out to die. Her attempts to avoid the prophecy from being fulfilled were unsuccessful when the infant Oedipus was handed over from servant to servant until finally being adopted by Polybus, the king......

Words: 1311 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Hamlet

...By highlighting the human experiences of the individual characters and their natural reactions to certain events, Shakespeare’s Hamlet allows contemporary audiences to value the continuing significance of gender roles, religion and personal behaviour in shaping ones identities and relationships. In Shakespeare’s times, as Queen Elizabeth’s reign passed to James 1st and the courts were changing to a Machiavellian system based on expediency for political gain, loyalties began to be questioned and a corresponding uncertainty was created. This uncertainty is also common within our own changing modern society. Shakespeare’s uncertainty and concern about the relationships between men and women remains relevant today, allowing me to empathise with the female characters, Gertrude and Ophelia. Though society’s treatment of women has improved, some inequality still remains, enabling us as modern responders to understand Shakespeare’s portrayal of women’s experiences and their loyalty towards their patriarchal figures. Hamlets mistreatment of Ophelia, “God hath given you one face, and you make yourselves another,” uses ploce to highlight his hypocrisy considering the “antic disposition” he puts on. Similarly, the vulgar comment, “nothing ... between maids' legs,” goes unchallenged, emphasising how Ophelia’s expected obedience prevents her defying a male’s authority. This portrayal represents Shakespeare’s patriarchal values, emphasising the seemingly eternal struggle for gender......

Words: 1193 - Pages: 5

pharm neurotransmission | Mrs Brown’s Boys | 7.5ML UR SUGAR Magnétique Nail Art Vernis à Ongles Semi-permanent UV Gel Polish