Angina

In: Other Topics

Submitted By taiba1234
Words 1867
Pages 8
What is Angina?
Angina is a heart condition a chest pain that occurs if there’s an area of your heart muscle that does not get enough oxygen-rich blood. Angina is a symptom of heart problem, usually a symptom of coronary heart disease this only happens to adults, how it works is a substance called plaque builds up on the inner walls of coronary arteries, these are the arteries that carry rich oxygen blood to your heart. Angina pain is similar to the asthma pain, but in this case the pain can also occur in your shoulders, arms, jaw, neck and even back.
What system does it affect & what causes it?
Angina is affected by the cardiovascular system. Angina is caused by the result of underlying coronary artery disease the arteries that supply the heart with blood rich blood, when the cholesterol aggregates on the artery wall and the hard plaque form the artery narrows. It is very difficult for the oxygen rich blood to reach the heart muscle as these arteries will then become more narrower, in addition the damage to the arteries from such as smoking and high levels fat or sugar in the blood can cause plaque to build up where the arteries are damaged, these narrow the arteries or may break off and form blood clots that block the arteries.

Types of Angina? * Stable Angina occurs when the heart is working harder and faster than usual. Angina is a painful condition but if a person takes angina medication or rest’s for a bit then the pain will go. The stable angina has a regular pattern which refers to how often the angina occurs for, usually this angina last for 5mins. * Unstable angina is different to stable angina this angina is more severe can occur with or without physical exertion, taking medication might not relieve the pain. Unstable angina is very dangerous and will need special treatment it is also a sign that a heart attack will…...

Similar Documents

Term Paper on Viagra

...What Is Angina? Angina (an-JI-nuh or AN-juh-nuh) is chest pain or discomfort that occurs if an area of your heart muscle doesn't get enough oxygen-rich blood. Angina may feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest. The pain also can occur in your shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back. Angina pain may even feel like indigestion. Angina isn't a disease; it's a symptom of an underlying heart problem. Angina usually is a symptom of coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD is the most common type of heart disease in adults. It occurs if a waxy substance called plaque (plak) builds up on the inner walls of your coronary arteries. These arteries carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart. Plaque Buildup in an Artery Plaque narrows and stiffens the coronary arteries. This reduces the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, causing chest pain. Plaque buildup also makes it more likely that blood clots will form in your arteries. Blood clots can partially or completely block blood flow, which can cause a heart attack. Types of Angina Classic Angina Stable angina is the most common type of angina. It occurs when the heart is working harder than usual. Stable angina has a regular pattern. (“Pattern” refers to how often the angina occurs, how severe it is, and what factors trigger it.) If you have stable angina, you can learn its pattern and......

Words: 581 - Pages: 3

Chronic Angina Case Study

...Chronic Angina Case Study Advanced Pathophysiology 2/2/14 1) Basis for diagnosis: Six month history of intermittent chest discomfort, described as lower substernal tightness with numbness of the left upper arm, only during exertion. + exercise stress test with pain and 1.5mm of ST segment depression. Class of Angina: Class 1 Chronic angina is associated with a fixed or stable coronary obstruction that creates a disparity between coronary blood flow and the metabolic demands of the myocardium. It is usually precipitated by situations that increase the metabolic needs of the heart such as physical exertion, cold, and emotional stress and relieved within minutes by rest or nitroglycerin. These symptoms occur repeatedly over time, sometimes months to years. This fixed or stable plaque is commonly associated with chronic angina whereas the unstable plaque is associated with unstable angina and myocardial infarction. It is these unstable plaques that are most prone to abrupt plaque changes, followed by thrombosis, that lead to MI, stroke, and sudden cardiac death. These unstable plaques can be divided into three categories of Acute Coronary Syndrome: Unstable Angina, NSTEMI, and STEMI. The pathophysiology between UA and NSTEMI are similar and include these key features: development of an unstable plaque that ruptures or plaque erosion with superimposed non occlusive thrombosis, an obstruction by spasm, constriction, dysfunction, or adrenergic stimuli, severe......

Words: 589 - Pages: 3

Emergency Procedures

...embolism: dyspnea, acute chest pain, coughing up blood (hemoptysis), cyanosis, tachypnea, hypoxia. 7. Automaticity allows the cardiac muscle cell to contract spontaneously without a stimulus from a nerve source. It means your heart pumps without something making it. 8. To determine cardiac output in the field, we must rely on heart rate and the strength of the pulse to estimate it. 9. Ischemia is decreased blood flow. Atherosclerosis is where there is a buildup of cholesterol and calcium, they form plaque inside the walls of blood vessels. They decrease the flow of blood. 10. Angina is when the heart tissues aren’t getting enough oxygen. This gives the patient chest pain, but doesn’t mean they are having a heart attack. Unstable angina is when they get this chest pain with little or no exercise. They have unstable angina when it takes less stimuli than normal to produce the angina. 11. Hypertensive emergency is defined by having a systolic greater than or at 160 or a rapid rise in systolic pressure. One of the most common signs is a severe headache, which may be a sign of cerebral hemorrhage. They may also have a strong, bounding pulse, ringing in the ears, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, warm dry skin, nosebleed, altered mental status, or even having a pulmonary edema suddenly develop. Untreated these things can lead to a stroke or dissecting aortic aneurysm. 12. The main thing nitroglycerin does is vasodilation, it widens the blood vessels. Widening......

Words: 581 - Pages: 3

Angina

...Angina Causes: Angina or chest pain occurs when the heart does not get an adequate oxygen supply because the arteries supplying the heart muscle are either blocked or narrowed. Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of chest pain. Some other causes of angina may be arrhythmias, anemia, coronary artery spasm, heart failure, heart valve disease, and hyperthyroidism. Stable angina is chronic and predictable meaning that it occurs after the activity or exercise and is short lasting (1-15 mins.). Unstable angina is chest pain that occurs suddenly, progressively becomes worse, and lasts longer than 15-20 mins (Chen & Zieve, 2011). S&S: Stable and Unstable angina present with the same symptoms: tightness, heavy pressure, squeezing or crushing pain in the chest, pain may radiate to shoulder, back, neck, jaw, left arm, shortness of breath, weakness, and fatigue. Some other symptoms may be sweating, dizziness or lightheadedness, nausea, vomiting, and palpitations (Chen & Zieve, 2011). Diagnostic tests: Tests that the doctor will run are to see what is causing the poor supply of blood to the heart. Some blood tests that are run are troponin 1 and T-00745, creatine phosphokinase, and myoglobin. These show if there is any damage to the heart tissue or if there is a risk for a heart attack. An electrocardiogram, which shows the electrical activity of the heart, and an echocardiogram, which shows the heart in picture form produced by soundwaves, may be done. Some stress......

Words: 654 - Pages: 3

Heart Disease

... What are the main symptoms? Angina * When CHD begins, the coronary arteries become progressively furred up with a fatty substance called atheroma. There are no symptoms at first but as the situation worsens, chest pain develops during physical activity as the coronary arteries are unable to supply enough blood to the heart muscle — this is called angina. * Pain is usually found in the upper chest and most sufferers say it feels like a heavy weight or squeezing sensation that eases off during rest. * This pain may also be felt in the neck, shoulders, arms or back and is frequently mistaken for indigestion, but the relationship with exertion is the key feature that points to a cardiac cause. * Angina can also come on when walking after a heavy meal or against a cold wind or when angry or stressed. * As the coronary arteries become more blocked, pain comes on with relatively little exertion, starting even at rest and taking longer to ease off — this is called crescendo or unstable angina and is serious because, unless treatment is given, one of the coronary arteries may become totally blocked. Heart attacks * When a coronary artery becomes blocked, the part of the heart muscle supplied by that coronary artery dies — this is more commonly known as a heart attack or myocardial infarction (MI). Heart attacks frequently occur without warning and without the presence of any other obvious symptoms (e.g. angina). * The usual symptoms of......

Words: 616 - Pages: 3

The Amazing Heart

...system. One of these problems is angina. Key Principles Angina can be defined as a discomfort or pain in the area of the heart or chest. It can feel like heavy pressure or even a squeezing in the chest area. But that is not the only place in the body where pain can be felt with experiencing angina. Pain can often occur in the shoulders, arms, neck, jaw and even the back. It is important to note that angina is not a disease, but more of a cardiac episode. It is actually a symptom or problem of and underlying heart problem. The most common type of heart disease associated with angina is Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). “In a diseased heart, these 2 factors, coronary artery narrowing and endothelial dysfunction, synergistically result in reduced oxygen delivery to the myocardium. The net result is angina pectoris.” (Zanne, 2011). It can occur if a waxy substance called plague builds up on the inner walls of the arteries of the heart. Subsequently, when the plague builds up, it stiffens and narrows the arteries. This can lead to a significant reduction in the flow of oxygen-rich blood, and also makes it more likely to have blood clots in the arteries. With the deficient flow of oxygen and possible partial or complete blockage, an myocardial infarction can occur. There can be many causes such as, “anemia, heart failure, ventricular hypertrophy, or pulmonary diseases. . .” (Lemone, 2008) There are three major types of angina. Knowing the different......

Words: 2029 - Pages: 9

Pharmacology

...the drug should be monitored for it. ANTIGINALS The onset of Antiginal action of nitrates begin 1 to 3 minutes of S.L or I.V. administration Nitroglycerine tablets should be stored in the original, light-resistant bottle away from heat. A client should replace old. Opened Nitroglycerine tablets with fresh ones every 6 months & discard any unused tablets. Suddenly stopping beta blocker therapy (Propanolol) may cause angina, hypertension, arrhythmias, or an acute MI. The most common adverse reaction to nitrates such as nitroglycerine is headache Propranolol shouldn’t be taken with foods because food delays the peak concentration effects of these drugs. Nifedipine is used to treat Prinzmetal angina. Nitroglycerine is used to treat acute and chronic angina. Verapamil is used to treat crescendo angina. If acute chest pain occurs in a client taking nifedipine he must go to the emergency department or call his physician immediately. Calcium channel blocker such as nifedipine are used for long term prevention of angina, not to relieve an acute angina attack, or prevent an attack. Calcium channel blockers such as Diltiazem can cause heart failure or worsen it because these drugs depress myocardial contractility. These drugs may also cause hypotension, bradycardia, and dizziness. Anticholinergics Atropine (Anticholinergics) can cause urine retention and should be given cautiously to a client with a history of BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia). Anticholinergics are......

Words: 1132 - Pages: 5

Cv Case Study

...discontinued. He was released to the cardiac step down unit on day 4. Questions: Describe angina pectoris and discuss the difference between chronic stable angina, unstable angina, and Prinzmetal’s angina. Angina Pectoris Angina pectoris is also know as chest pain or discomfort due to coronary heart disease.  Angina is the sensation of discomfort experienced during periods of myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction. It may occur when myocardial oxygen demand exceeds myocardial oxygen supply. Myocardial ischemia and angina are most commonly the result of significant stenosis of one or more coronary arteries. In patients with chronic stable angina, myocardial ischemia results when myocardial oxygen demand increases, such as during physical exertion. Coronary vasoconstriction, particularly at the site of a preexisting stenosis, can also contribute to myocardial ischemia and produce angina (Glenn Levine). Unstable angina also known as acute coronary syndrome causes unexpected chest pain, and usually occurs while resting.  The most common cause is reduced blood flow to the heart muscle because the coronary arteries are narrowed by fatty buildups (atherosclerosis) which can rupture causing injury to the coronary blood vessel resulting in blood clotting which blocks the flow of blood to the heart muscle (American Heart Association, 2015). Prinzmetal’s angina also know as Coronary artery spasm (CAS) is a temporary discomfort or pain that is caused by a......

Words: 4159 - Pages: 17

Heart Diease

...is not enough blood reaching the heart, the heart will respond with pain call angina. This pain is usually felt sometimes in the left arm and shoulder or in the chest. However sometimes there are no symptoms, which is a condition called silent angina. Once the blood supply is cut off completely the results are a heart attack. CHD is the result of a process known as atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis occurs when a person has fat like substances in the blood. This process is caused by a thickening which narrows the arteries over time by deposits of plaque. Plaque is a buildup of materials such as: * Cholesterol * Fats * Platelets * Cell wastes * Calcium At a young age plaque can start to deposit in the blood vessel walls, and as you get older the plaque burden builds up. Eventually, a narrowed coronary artery may develop new blood vessels that go around the blockage to get blood to the heart. However, during times of increased exertion or stress, the new arteries may not be able to supply enough oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. In some cases, a blood clot may totally block the blood supply to the heart muscle, causing heart attack The most common symptom of coronary artery disease is angina, or chest pain. Angina can be described as a heaviness, pressure, aching, burning, numbness, fullness, squeezing or painful feeling. It can be mistaken for indigestion or heartburn. Angina is usually felt in the chest, but may also be felt in the left shoulder,......

Words: 413 - Pages: 2

Cohort Follow-Up Studies: Cardiovascular Disease (Cvd)

...most common form of this disorder. Atherosclerosis is also the most common cause of cardiovascular disease, and it's often caused by an unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, being overweight and smoking. All of these are major risk factors for developing atherosclerosis and, in turn, cardiovascular disease Symptoms of heart disease in your blood vessels (cardiovascular disease) Cardiovascular disease is caused by narrowed, blocked or stiffened blood vessels that prevent your heart, brain or other parts of your body from receiving enough blood. Cardiovascular disease symptoms can include: * Chest pain (angina) * Shortness of breath * Pain, numbness, weakness or coldness in your legs or arms, if the blood vessels in those parts of your body are narrowed You might not be diagnosed with cardiovascular disease until your condition worsens to the point that you have a heart attack, angina, stroke, or heart failure. It's important to watch for cardiovascular symptoms and discuss any concerns with your doctor. Cardiovascular disease can sometimes be found early with regular visits to your doctor. Preventing and Managing Your Cardiovascular Disease The decline in death rates from cardiovascular disease in America is due largely to people adopting a healthier lifestyle and controlling their risk factors. Research has found that a 12- to 13-point reduction in blood pressure can reduce deaths from cardiovascular disease by 25 percent. A 10 percent decrease in total blood cholesterol......

Words: 1523 - Pages: 7

Coronary

...Americans have symptoms due to coronary artery disease. As many as 1.5 million Americans will have a heart attack this year. As a result, almost one third will die. The most dramatic symptom of (CAD) is sudden death. But (CAD) produces other, sometimes less dramatic symptoms (chest pain). Chest pain (Angina) Angina or chest pain occurs when your heart tissues don’t receive enough oxygen and nutrition’s because of a blockage occurs, heat cells uses stored energy for pumping. By products, such as lactic acid, build up and are not removed efficiently because of the blocked blood flow that caused the problem initially. Waste product build up is thought to be the cause pain. The pain may be similar to the pain experienced when you overwork your muscles, which is also due to the cell become damaged permanently. This temporary injury is called infarction or tissue death. Angina There are two types of Angina Associated with coronary artery disease: stable and unstable. Whereas stable angina has a predictable pattern that occurs over time, unstable angina is different from the patient’s usual pattern of chest pain. Typical symptoms of angina include a variety, of sensations. For example, angina may involve only mild, vague discomfort that is not really perceived as pain but as more an ache or it may be a severe intense crushing pain in the center of the chest. The location of pain may differ; however, pain is usually felt beneath the breastbone. In addition to chest pain,......

Words: 1188 - Pages: 5

Beta-Blockers

...Beta-blockers xxxx Collin College HPRS 1310-WW1 April 15, 2012 The first beta-blocker drug approved by the FDA in 1967 was developed by Sir James Black, an accomplishment for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1988 (Stapleton, 1997). Sir Black took a different approach to the treatment of angina pectoris—instead of using drugs to increase the amount of oxygen delivered to the heart, Black sought to find a drug that could reduce the amount of oxygen required by the heart. The drugs in this classification are subdivided into two categories: non-selective and selective (cardioselective). Major drugs in the non-selective beta-blocker category include carteolol, nadolol, penbutolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, and timolol. Major drugs in the cardioselective category include acebutolol, atenolol, betaxolol, esmolol, metroprolol, and nebivolol. Some others, including carvedilol and labetalol also have alpha-adrenergic blocking effects, but are outside the scope of this paper. (Vallerand, 2013; Turley, 2010) Beta-blockers are prescribed for the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, prevention of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, migraine headaches, and glaucoma. (Vallerand, 2013; Hodgson & Kizior, 2013) Beta-blockers work to compete with sympathetic neurotransmitters1 for beta1 and beta2 adrenergic receptor sites. Beta1 receptors are found in cardiac muscle, and beta2......

Words: 1215 - Pages: 5

Soc 313 Week 3 Quiz Endocrine and Cardiovascular Systems Disorders Terminology

...ventricles atria Question 5.   When a blood vessel in the brain leaks or bursts, bleeding occurs into or around the brain stopping or decreasing blood flow to other areas of the brain.  This is called a/an ________________________. thrombotic ischemic stroke embolic ischemic stroke hemorrhagic stroke arrhythmia Question 6.   ________________________ is a simple sugar that all cells use as an energy source. Fructose Sucrose Glucose Lactose Question 7.   When a blood vessel becomes mostly or totally blocked, _______________________ may result. angina myocardial infarction stenosis arrhythmia Question 8.   Diabetes is characterized by __________. high levels of glucose in the blood autoimmune disease pregnancy hypertension Question 9.   _________________ happens with exertion, emotional upset, exposure to cold or overeating, and resolves with rest or from taking a medication. unstable angina ischemia arrhythmia stable angina Question 10.            Interruption of normal blood flow to part of the brain is known as __________. cerebrovascular disease hypertension atrial fibrillation arrhythmia For more Assignments visit http://www.uoptutors.com...

Words: 304 - Pages: 2

Angina

...Angina When describing a cardiovascular illness is best to start with the physical aspects of how the heart works. The Heart Your heart is a pump that keeps blood moving around your body. It delivers oxygen and nutrients to all parts of your body, and carries away unwanted carbon dioxide and waste products. As your heart muscle contracts, it pushes blood through your heart. With each contraction, or heartbeat: * Your heart pumps blood forward from its left side and into the arteries. Blood from the right side is pumped to your lungs. * The blood continues through the arteries, which divide off into smaller and smaller branches of microscopic capillaries. Travelling through this network of capillaries, blood reaches every part of your body.  * The blood then travels back to the heart from the capillaries into the veins. The branches of the veins join to form larger veins, which deliver the blood back to the right side of your heart. As the heart relaxes in between each heartbeat or contraction, blood from your veins fills the right side of your heart and blood from the lungs fills the left side of your heart. The two sides of the heart are separate, but they work together. The right side of the heart receives dark, de-oxygenated blood which has circulated around your body. It pumps this to your lungs, where it picks up a fresh supply of oxygen and becomes bright red again. When there is an interruption to the oxygenated blood supply to the heart this can......

Words: 1188 - Pages: 5

Cardiovascular Disease

...Cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular diseases is the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins).  Cardiovascular diseases include the following; • Aneurysm • Angina • Atherosclerosis • Cerebrovascular disease • Congestive Heart Failure • Coronary Artery Disease • Myocardial infarction (Heart Attack) • Peripheral vascular disease Atherosclerosis is a condition in which fatty material collects along the walls of arteries. This fatty material thickens, hardens (forms calcium deposits), and may eventually block the arteries. Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis. The two terms are often used to mean the same thing. Atherosclerosis is a common disorder that specifically affects the medium and large arteries. It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls of arteries and form hard structures called plaques. Eventually, the plaques can make the artery narrow and less flexible, making it harder for blood to flow. If the coronary arteries become narrow, blood flow to the heart can slow down or stop. This can cause chest pain (stable angina), shortness of breath, heart attack, and other symptoms. Pieces of plaque can break off and move through the affected artery to smaller blood vessels, blocking them and causing tissue damage or death (embolization). This is a common cause of heart attack and stroke. Blood clots can also form around a tear (fissure) in the plaque leading to...

Words: 707 - Pages: 3

Charlie Hunnam | Kate Bosworth | 100% Pure Natural Aloe Vera Gel Moisturizing Remove Acnes Facial Skin Care 40g