Adherence to Antibiotic Therapy

In: Science

Submitted By mikeaddair
Words 866
Pages 4
Adherence to Antibiotic Therapy in Primary Care

Grand Canyon University

Introduction To Nursing Research

Terese Verklan

July 6th, 2014 Adherence to Antibiotic Therapy in Primary Care
Problem Statement “The term compliance or adherence can be described as the extent or correlation between the patient’s obedience to the therapy and the advice of health providers. Thus, it is related to the patient’s drug-taking attitude. Even when appropriate treatment is prescribed successful results may not always be achieved if patient’s use their medicines improperly” (Göktay, Telefoncu, Kadıoƃlu, Macit, Şencan, & Clark, 2013, p. 113). Many uncomplicated bacterial illnesses react quickly after starting treatment with antibiotics. This can lead to people failing to complete the entire course of treatment and thus recurrence of the illness. In some diseases, it takes a certain length of time of exposure to a specific dose of an antibiotic to kill the bacteria. If the right dose is not taken for the correct length of time, some of the bacteria or viruses may survive, multiply, and cause the infection to recur. “Adherence is an important factor in the achievement of therapeutic outcomes, while patient education is thought to positively affect adherence. The aim of this study is to assess patient adherence to prescribed antibacterial agents impact of patient education on adherence with the therapy” (Göktay, Telefoncu, Kadıoƃlu, Macit, Şencan, & Clark, 2013, p. 113).
Purpose and Research Questions “This study was a prospective, controlled trial and conduced in a community pharmacy. Consecutive patients that had been prescribed oral antibiotic therapy for any type of infectious diseases were asked to participate in the trial. A total of 60 patient’s were included in the study” (Göktay, Telefoncu, Kadıoƃlu, Macit, Şencan, & Clark, 2013, p. 113). It is a nurse’s role…...

Similar Documents

Antibiotics: Not Always the Answer

...Antibiotics: Not Always the Answer It was flu season. Almost everyone was getting sick. For a few days, my throat felt constricted, making it hard for me to swallow down food. Thinking that it was a cold, I ignored it and went on with my daily schedule. Two weeks passed, there was no change. I never really thought about looking at my throat to see what was going on, but once I looked, my tonsils were the size of golf balls. I went straight to my doctor, hoping it wasn't tonsillitis. The first thing we had to figure out was to see if this was a bacterial or viral infection. My tests results for strep throat, mononucleosis, tonsillitis, and blood samples to test for bacterial infection were all negative. My doctor reported that my results indicated that I had some sort of virus, and did not prescribe me antibiotics, raising questions for why I shouldn't be taking antibiotics for my infection. Since Alexander Fleming's discovery of them in 1927, antibiotics have played a profound role in ridding the population of bacterial infections. Antibiotics are chemicals that work to kill disease-causing, single-cell living organisms called bacteria ("The Danger of Antibiotic Overuse"). Bacteria can surpass our immune system, reproduce, and cause diseases or infection by producing chemicals that damage our bodies ("What Are Antibiotics? How Do Antibiotics Work?"). For instance, bacteria can invade our inner ear and cause a bacterial ear infection. Our immune system works to fight the...

Words: 1937 - Pages: 8

Viruses and Antibiotics

...characteristics. 2. Viruses cannot be grown agar as bacteria are because they cannot metabolize on their own. They need at least one host cell where it could input its DNA and infect it. After that, both those viruses would commence by infecting other living host cells. 3. Antibiotics work to get rid of the replicating function of bacteria so it cannot spread. However, viruses cannot replicate on their own unless they have living hosts, therefore since the viruses do not replicate, the antibiotics have no use. 4. Viral specificity means that the virus chooses and selects the type of cell, organism to infect and which disease to invoke onto it. 5. a) A-Virus, B-Cell DNA, C-Cell/Cell Membrane, D- Nucleic Acid (DNA or RNA) b) Bacteriophage Life Cycle c) I believe it doesn’t matter what they infect, as they are non-living and as long as they find some kind of living host, they’ll inject their nucleic acid to replicate into many more viruses. 6. Antibiotics literally will have no effect and will not cure the patient. All that the patient will gain are the side effects, for example: drowsiness and such. They will not get cured, as their problem is that viruses aren’t alive and antibiotics only deal with live things. Part 2 Works Cited Wikipedia contributors. "Rabies in Animals." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 19 June 2013.......

Words: 318 - Pages: 2

Article Critique-Article Adherence to Ocular Hypertensive Therapy-Patient Health Education Needs and Views on Group Education

...Article Critique - Adherence to ocular hypotensive therapy: Patient health education needs and views on group education This paper evaluates a medical journal article entitled, “Adherence to ocular hypotensive therapy: Patient health education needs and views on group education,” by Waterman published on the Journal of Patient Preference and Adherence, Volume 7, pages 55-63, 2013. While the title is apparent to the clinicians on the topic that the article is looking at, it may be slightly challenging for the general public to understand the term "ocular hypotensive therapy" in the title as it was not explained anywhere in the article. The term may be phrased in a more understandable manner such as "therapy to reduce eye pressure" or "glaucoma therapy" as this article is from an open access medical journal focusing on patient preference and adherence, the general public who are interested in this topic will have access to it and they intend to understand and get useful information from the article. Therefore, the title should be as clear as possible to stimulate the interest of not only the clinicians but also the general public to encourage them to read. Nonetheless, after reading the article, the title is considered as precise and concise in reflecting the content of the work. As the title of the article suggests, the main issue discussed in the article was that as in other long-term conditions, there is a tendency in patients with glaucoma did not adhere to their......

Words: 2064 - Pages: 9

A General Review of Tetracyclines Antibiotics

...A General Review of Tetracyclines Antibiotics Chang Liu Instructor: Prof. Jasson Sello Department of Chemistry, Brown University Providence 02906, RI Tetracyclines are the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be applied to clinic use. Nevertheless, the increasing incidence of bacterial resistance of tetracyclines led to a series of studies on the development of semisynthetic tetracyclines to circumvent the resistant organisms. In order to better design the structures of tetracycline derivatives, research on the action mode of tetracyclines, mechanisms of resistance, biosynthesis and total synthesis of tetracyclines were also performed. Keywords: Tetracyclines, Structure-activity Relationship, Mode of Action, Mechanisms of Resistance, Biosynthesis, Total Synthesis 1. Introduction Tetracyclines are a group of polyketide broad-spectrum antibiotics that has activity against a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, mycoplasmas, chlamydiae and peotozoan parasites [1]. The discovery of tetracycline was in the 1940s. At that time, the problems related to the production of Pennicillin has been solved and pharmaceutical industry and academic institutes started to concentrate their energy on the development of new antibiotics. In 1948, the first member of tetracycline family—chlorotetracyclin, or Aureomycin was discovered as an isolate of Streptomyces Aureofaciens in an antibiotic screening program functioned in Lederle Labs [2]. In 1950, oxytetracycline or......

Words: 2838 - Pages: 12

Antibiotic Misuse

...There are several people who use antibiotics for the wrong reasons. Some people think that using antibiotics will get rid of a cold or the flu virus faster or clear up a skin condition. Antibiotics should only be consumed for the infectious illness in which they were suggested for. Antibiotics are abused world-wide, and abuse of the medication can do more harm than help. I chose to research antibiotic abuse and the underlying issues with antibiotics. Antibiotics are being abused in so many ways by people and industries everywhere. The focus will be on agricultural abuse of antibiotics, human abuse, and antibiotic resistance. I will conduct various phone or face to face interviews with individuals as well as provide a questionnaire survey to obtain the information needed for this particular project. What are antibiotics? Antibiotics are “A medicine (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms”, (What You Should Know about Antibiotics, 2012, p. 3). Antibiotics are used to treat various infections within the body cavity. They help ward off unwanted illnesses. There are various types of antibiotics each one has a significant role in fighting bacteria or fungal infections. “How do antibiotics work? When properly prescribed for a bacterial illness, antibiotics join forces with your body’s own defenses and literally wage war against invading bacteria. Some antibiotics dissolve the protective cell wall of an organism, rupturing......

Words: 1681 - Pages: 7


...Antibiotics have saved numerous lives since the innovation of penicillin antibiotics in 1928 by Alexander Fleming. Although, now there is a increasing anxiety that overuse of antibiotics can direct to avoidable side effects and the expansion of drugs which are mostly opposing bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus).  MRSA has happened to be the most frequent organism responsible for skin, soft tissue and surgical-site infections in the United States and in different parts of the Europe. Different findings had been conducted in a study of the genetic code of MRSA samples; they have added these samples to support to the theory that the introduction of extensive antibiotic use in the 1960s may have generated MRSA disease. Antibiotic word is an originated from Greek for anti, which means against and bios means life. A micro –organism bacteria is a life figure that is moreover good, living in our lower part of the canal near stomach and anus which called intestine, such bacteria’s infecting our bodies and making the world population ill. Antibiotics are a kind of drugs used to treat these infections caused by bacteria. Healthy immune systems can be destroyed by bad bacteria before they can cause disorder in the whole body which causing illness. Human bodies assault the bacteria by transferring white blood cells to the unsafe bacteria separating the good bacteria unaccompanied. Antibiotics are frequently used for higher respiratory infections. But the......

Words: 1136 - Pages: 5

Antibiotic and Surgery

...Antibiotic in Surgical Patients Gretchen Smith Antibiotic in Surgical Patients Prevention of surgical infections is a highly significant issue to pre-op nursing care, as surgeons entrust nurses to carry out the procedure, of administration antibiotic prophylactic, which have a positive impact on patient outcome. When a surgeon determined that an antibiotic is going to be required for a particular case, giving the antibiotic at the correct time is “very important” (“Case example,” 2010, p. 27). Research has found that antibiotics that are administered (“to early or after surgery begins are not effective” (“Case example,” 2010, p. 27). It is important for nurse to be aware of the timetable and take steps to implement this in to their practice. It has been debated as to whether or not antibiotic prophylaxis is appropriate in preventing infections in surgical patients. (Easter, 2010). Zaidi, Tariq and Breslin (2009), addressed the topic of timing an antibiotic prophylaxis, the researches study 525 elective surgeries and the timing of antibiotic administration. Zaidi, Tariq and Breslin stated that the “antibiotic should be administered as near to the incision time as possible,” as the study found that “pre-incisional prophylaxis administration of antibiotics is more beneficial than post-incisional administration” (Zaidi, Tariq, & Breslin, 2009, p. 226) The most significant risk factor for delivery by cesarean section is post partum infection. As......

Words: 866 - Pages: 4


...AAntibiotics Antibiotics are a chemical which work by being either bactericidal where they kill microorganisms; or by being bacteristatic where they inhibit the growth of the microorganisms. Narrow spectrum antibiotics target specific reaction in particular microorganisms; whereas broad spectrum antibiotics will have an effect on more general features so affect a wide range of pathogens. They work by cell wall synthesis: an example of a bactericidal antibiotic is Penicillin, this works by preventing the production of peptidoglycan which is a substance that forms in the cell wall. This means the cell will continue to grow without dividing or developing new cell wall Therefore, the wall gets weaker, and eventually ruptures. Another way antibiotics works is by protein synthesis: an example of a bacteriostatic antibiotic is Tetracycline, it binds to ribosomes in bacteria this means the cell cannot make proteins and therefore inhibits growth. The benefits of using antibiotics is that it helps people with weakened immune systems, it can treat many infections such as strep throat, tonsillitis and sinusitis, it is easy to administer since you can take them orally or via injection, it has few side effects and is cost effective. However issues concerning antibiotics are allergic reactions depending on your drug allergies you may be extremely allergic to some types of antibiotics, such as those containing sulfa. Unfortunately, sulfa is present in many common antibiotics, so it......

Words: 462 - Pages: 2


...ANSWERS Process of Science (13.15) What Are the Patterns of Antibiotic Resistance? Lab Notebook Place an "nr" for "not resistant" and an "r" for "resistant" in the appropriate boxes. | | |Subjects | |Antibiotic |Common Use | | | | |Child |Elderly |Young woman |Physician | | | | |person | | | |Ampicillin |treatment of ear |r |nr |nr |r | | |and throat | | | | | | |infections | | | | | |Cephalosporin |treatment for |nr |r |nr |r | | |people susceptible| | | | | | |to skin infections| | | | | |Ciprofloxacin |treatment of |nr |nr |r |r | | ...

Words: 275 - Pages: 2

Overuse of Antibiotics

...The New England Health Institute (NEHI) considers antibiotic overuse a $63 billion issue that desperately needs reform. The solution to the overuse of antibiotics has already been started by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The CDC implemented an educational program discussing the treatments of viruses and bacterial diseases aimed at patients or the parents of patients as well as health care providers. This program called, Get Smart, Know When Antibiotics Work, discusses the dangers of demanding an antibiotic when the drug will not be effective and outlines options for doctors to discuss with patients (Bend the Curve, 2013). Another part of the reform effort suggests increasing vaccinations to combat antibiotic overuse. By increasing the use of flu shots, the need for antibiotics will diminish. The NEHI favors reform of the guidelines in hospital clinics and other health care settings making it policy to not prescribe antibiotics unless the treatment calls for them, no matter what the patient demands. If all health care professionals respond this way, patients will eventually accept the practice. NEHI considers antibiotic overuse a major player in the health care reform setting including antibiotics given to, or put in the feed, of animals that later become food. Work to decrease antibiotic use in this area impacts human medicine as much as efforts to decrease antibiotics prescribed to humans (Bend the Curve, 2013). Not only are there action that can be taken by......

Words: 506 - Pages: 3

Antibiotic Resistance

...Antibiotic resistance — what is it and why is it a problem? The development of antibiotics was one of the most important advances of medicine. Many bacterial infections (e.g. tuberculosis and infected wounds) that had previously had no effective treatment and often killed people, became treatable with antibiotics, saving millions of lives. Now, because of the overuse and misuse of antibiotics, bacterial infections that were once easily cured with antibiotics are becoming harder to treat. This is due to antibiotic resistance. The World Health Organization has called this one of the biggest threats to human health today.   What is antibiotic resistance? Antibiotic resistance happens when bacteria change to protect themselves from an antibiotic. They are then no longer sensitive to that antibiotic. When this happens, antibiotics that previously would have killed the bacteria, or stopped them from multiplying, no longer work. What are ‘superbugs’? ‘Superbugs’ are bacteria that are resistant to several different antibiotics. The methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria commonly found in hospitals, and the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), are now very hard to treat because of antibiotic resistance. Strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) — the bacteria that causes many urinary tract infections — have also developed resistance to a number of antibiotics. How does antibiotic resistance affect me? Using antibiotics when you......

Words: 567 - Pages: 3

“Gene Therapy”

...Gene therapy is the transplantation of normal, healthy genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones in order to repair or replace the diseased causing cell, genes. How it works is correct the genetic disorders, like sickle cell, brain cancer and other cancerous cell and viral infections. Biotechnologist have found that there is still no quick rout to achieving this. Gene therapy is still at its experimental stages of treatment, but some of their findings have been promising. The gene therapy starts with a virus. The Genetic engineers then extract the genetic coding from the virus, replacing it with a therapeutic gene that is designed to produce proteins that help fight certain illness. Proteins are then added to the virus. The protein is placed on top of the virus. It then attaches itself to the cell that is causing the disease or virus. This the new genetic code. The new gene with the virus is then injected into a patient or patients. It will then to try get through the body’s immune systems. Sometimes the immune system will attack and destroy the virus before it able to reach the diseased or cancerous cells. The virus only attaches to cells that are compatible to its receptors. When the diseased causing cell starts to respond to the proteins the virus attaches itself to the surface and the cell receptors draws the virus inside this called endocytosis. The virus which contains a genetic coding for enzymes is called integrase. Next the......

Words: 705 - Pages: 3

Resistance to Antibiotics antibiotics, explain how such adaptations can develop through the process of natural selection. Exam # 25010400 Exam # 25010400 January 17, 2016 kelsey duff January 17, 2016 kelsey duff Natural selection is the process that results in adaptation of a population to the biotic (living) and the abiotic (nonliving) environments. In the biotic environment organisms acquire resources through completion, predation, and parasitism. The abiotic environment includes weather conditions, dependent chiefly on temperatues and precipitation. Directional selection occurs when an extreme phenotype is favored and the distribution curve shifts in that direction. Such a shift can occur when a population is adapting to a changing environment. Resistance to antibiotics and insecticides are examples of directional selection. The widespread use of antibiotics and insecticides (pesticides) results in populations of bacteria and insects that are resistant to these chemicals. When an antibiotic is administered, some bacteria may survive because they are genetically resistant to the antibiotic. These bacteria are most likely to pass on their genes to the next generation. Result, the number of bacteria keeps in increasing. Drug-resistant strains of bacteria that cause tuberculosis have now become a serious threat to the health of people worldwide. Because the genes of bacteria are varied, it is likely that there are some bacteria that carry genes which allow them to survive or resist antibiotics,......

Words: 333 - Pages: 2


...Urine Therapy We look at urine as waste and unsanitary toxins that can cause bodily harm if consumed back into the body. Little that we know that urine has been used for medicine, muscle relaxing treatments, rubbing alcohol, acne treatment, religious purposes, and even something bizarre as consuming it since the beginning of time. So is urine as toxic, disgusting and harmful that we think or is we simply misinterpreting and over reacting to a natural healthy therapeutic solution? Urine therapy has been around for a long time. The Romans and Spaniards used urine to keep their teeth bright and white. They believe that urine from another man or themselves was rich and kept plaque from building up. Religiously, urine was looked at as oil or pure substances that helped relax and heal the body. An India religious Sanskrit called Damar Tantra “pure water or one’s own urine” and actual named the fluid, Shivambu Kalpa. They believed by applying the natural fluid to wounds, sore body parts, or infected areas, would help prevent any fared infections and heal any wounds. Even the Bible mentions urine therapy! A verse in Proverbs (Proverbs 5:15) advices: “Drink waters from thy own cistern, flowing water from thy own well.” Urine therapy has been mention all too often to not believe that it has some kind of positive effect. Let’s try and look at it from a scientific stand point. Scientist conducted studies to see if urine therapy method was a phony or factual. In fact, urine showed......

Words: 815 - Pages: 4

Outcome of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Impact of Antibiotic Therapy and

...Australasian Medical Journal [AMJ 2012, 5, 2, 135-140] Outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia: Impact of antibiotic therapy and other factors Noyal Mariya Joseph1, Sujatha Sistla1, Tarun Kumar Dutta2, Ashok Shankar Badhe3, Desdemona Rasitha1, Subhash Chandra Parija1 1. Department of Microbiology, 2. Department of Medicine, 3. Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry - 605006, India RESEARCH Please cite this paper as: Joseph NM, Sistla S, Dutta TK, Badhe AS, Rasitha D, Parija SC. Outcome of ventilatorassociated pneumonia: impact of appropriate therapy and other factors. AMJ 2012, 5, 2, 135-140. http// Corresponding Author: Dr. Noyal Mariya Joseph, Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Pillaiyarkuppam, Pondicherry – 607 402 (India) Email: Please use these fonts and font sizes only. Abstract inappropriate therapy (defined as lack of coverage of one or all the significant VAP pathogens) were at significantly high risk for death (Relative risk, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 to 3.52; P 0.0008). A delay of > 2 days in administering the first dose of appropriate antibiotic therapy significantly prolonged the duration of ventilation (P < 0.0001). Infection by multi-drug resistant pathogens, polymicrobial infection and time of onset of VAP did......

Words: 3905 - Pages: 16

26.12.1600:32 Uhr Rogue One: A Star Wars Story (Music By Michael Giacchino) Soundtrack256 kbit/s 0 / 06.570 Hits VID P2P DDL 0 Kommentare | El Muneco De Nieve HDTV-Screener | First Light