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A Study on Customer Awareness Towards Atm Frauds

In: Social Issues

Submitted By Mahasakthi
Words 12313
Pages 50
TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NUMBER | TITLE | PAGE NUMBER | 1 | Introduction | 1 - 7 | 2 | Theoretical background of study | 8 - 21 | 3 | Analysis and Interpretation | 22 - 77 | 4 | Findings and suggestion | 77 - 82 | 5 | Conclusion | 83 | | Bibliography | vi - vii | | Annexure | viii - xi |

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO. | TITLE | PAGE NUMBER | 3.1 | Age of the respondent | 22 | 3.2 | Gender of the respondents | 24 | 3.3 | Educational qualification of the respondents | 26 | 3.4 | Occupational status of the respondents | 28 | 3.5 | Awareness on the procedure for using ATM | 30 | 3.6 | Receipt of proper guidelines from bank | 32 | 3.6.1 | Mode of receipt of guidelines | 34 | 3.6.2 | Instructions followed by customers | 36 | 3.6.3 | Requirement for more guidelines | 38 | 3.7 | Usage of ATM in a remote/suspicious area | 40 | 3.8 | Usage of ATM besides unknown person | 42 | 3.9 | Closing the entry door while using ATM | 44 | 3.10 | Lending the card or pin to stranger’s | 46 | 3.11 | Leave the ATM before cancelling or completing the transaction | 48 | 3.12 | Mention the pin in the card | 50 |

3.13 | Usage of ATM device while they suspect ATM device has been tampered | 52 | 3.14 | Inform the bank immediately about lost card | 54 | 3.15 | Checking of bank accounts regularly | 56 | 3.16 | Inform the bank immediately on finding of any unauthorized ATM transaction | 58 | 3.17 | Usage of ATM device with any old equipment or wires attached to ATM device | 60 | 3.18 | Inform the bank if card stuck in ATM | 62 | 3.19 | Action of customers if cash does not dispensedAfter entering pin | 64 | 3.20 | Usage of ATM to withdraw large amount of cash | 66 | 3.21 | Pay attention to display screen while entering pi | 68 | 3.22 | Requirement of guard in ATM counter | 70 | 3.23 | Card swiping at the entry door avoid ATM frauds | 72 | 3.24 | Other problem faced while using ATM | 74 | 3.25 | Suggestions to eradicate ATM frauds | 76 |

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO. | TITLE | PAGE NUMBER | 3.1 | Age of the respondent | 23 | 3.2 | Gender of the respondents | 25 | 3.3 | Educational qualification of the respondents | 27 | 3.4 | Occupational status of the respondents | 29 | 3.5 | Awareness on the procedure for using ATM | 31 | 3.6 | Receipt of proper guidelines from bank | 33 | 3.6.1 | Mode of receipt of guidelines | 35 | 3.6.2 | Instructions followed by customers | 37 | 3.6.3 | Requirement for more guidelines | 39 | 3.7 | Usage of ATM in a remote/suspicious area | 41 | 3.8 | Usage of ATM besides unknown person | 43 | 3.9 | Closing the entry door while using ATM | 45 | 3.10 | Lending the card or pin to stranger’s | 47 | 3.11 | Leave the ATM before cancelling or completing the transaction | 49 | 3.12 | Mention the pin in the card | 51 |

3.13 | Usage of ATM device while they suspect ATM device has been tampered | 53 | 3.14 | Inform the bank immediately about lost card | 55 | 3.15 | Checking of bank accounts regularly | 57 | 3.16 | Inform the bank immediately on finding of any unauthorized ATM transaction | 59 | 3.17 | Usage of ATM device with any old equipment or wires attached to ATM device | 61 | 3.18 | Inform the bank if card stuck in ATM | 63 | 3.19 | Action of customers if cash does not dispensedAfter entering pin | 65 | 3.20 | Usage of ATM to withdraw large amount of cash | 67 | 3.21 | Pay attention to display screen while entering pi | 69 | 3.22 | Requirement of guard in ATM counter | 71 | 3.23 | Card swiping at the entry door avoid ATM frauds | 73 | 3.24 | Other problem faced while using ATM | 75 | 3.25 | Suggestions to eradicate ATM frauds | 77 |

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
&
PROJECT DESIGN

1.1 INTRODUCTION An automated teller machine is an electronic telecommunications device that enables the clients of a financial institution to perform financial transactions without the need for a cashier, human clerk or bank teller. ATMs, the customer is identified by inserting a plastic card with a magnetic stripe or a plastic card with a chip that contains a unique card number and some security information such as an expiration date or CVVC Authentication is provided by the customer entering a PIN. Using an ATM, customers can access their bank accounts in order to make cash withdrawals, get debit card cash advances, and check their account balances as well as purchase pre-paid mobile phone credit. If the currency being withdrawn from the ATM is different from that which the bank account is denominated in, the money will be converted at an official wholesale exchange rate. Thus, ATMs often provide one of the best possible official exchange rates for foreign travelers, and are also widely used for this purpose. An ATM card is a payment card provided by a financial institution to its customers which enables the customer to use an ATM for transactions. It is also known as a bank card, client card, key card, or cash card The use of ATM is not only safe but is also convenient. This safety and convenience, unfortunately, has an evil side. This evil side is reflected in the form of “ATM frauds” that is a global problem. With the advent of ATMs there come another opportunity for would-be thieves to steal money, account information, and identities. The term "ATM fraud" can refer to an illegal transaction that is committed by using an ATM, including fraudulent deposits or skimming card information. This growth is not only in positive use of the same but as well as the negative use of the same. The world at large is struggling to increase the convenience and safety on the one hand and to reduce it misuse on the other. An effective remedy for prevention of ATM frauds, however, cannot be provided unless we understand the true nature of the problem. But before that customer have to be aware of ATM frauds. Customer awareness is back bone to eradicate ATM frauds. The term customer awareness describes the awareness of a potential or current buyer about a particular product or company. Therefore the project was carried out for understanding the customer awareness towards ATM frauds. 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To study the theoretical background of ATM and ATM frauds 2. To study about the precautionary measures to eradicate ATM frauds. 3. To analyze the customer awareness level towards ATM frauds 4. To offer suggestions on basis of the findings 1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY In this busy world were people find no time to do their essential works, ATM is more than a boon to them. But now a day’s ATM frauds are in an increasing trend, which makes people hesitate to use. This study will pave way to find out the types of frauds and suggest ways to get rid of those frauds and find out the awareness level about ATM frauds. This study is confined to Madurai city only. 1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the current scenario the usage of ATM is increasing and as well as the frauds through ATM is also increasing. This leads too many crimes in the society. ATM is boon to all because of its usage but these mistakes through ATM it creates insecure feeling among the public. Some people still hesitate to use ATM due to these ATM frauds. These happen because they are not fully aware of ATM frauds, and no proper guidelines to use ATM’s. This made interest in the researcher to find out suggestions to create awareness about ATM and to reduce ATM frauds. 1.5 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Certain related studies have been gone through and reviews of such studies have been presented here: 1. Tej Paul Bhatla, Vikram Prabhu & Amit Dua conducted a research on the Topic ‘Understanding Credit Card Frauds” in June 2003. The authors state that Credit Card Fraud is one of the biggest threats to business establishments today. Lost or stolen card is the most common type of fraud and others include identity theft, skimming, counterfeit card, mail intercept fraud and others. The most commonly used techniques in internet fraud are site cloning, false merchant sites, credit card generators. The technology for detecting credit card frauds is advancing at a rapid pace by rules based systems, neural networks; chip cards and biometrics are some of the popular techniques employed by Issuing and Acquiring banks these days. And he concluded that the internet has also brought in increased probability of fraud in credit card transactions and at the same that technology for preventing credit card frauds is also improving. 1 Mandeep Kaur conducted a study on the topic “Perception of card users and member establishments towards plastic money in India” He states that Credit card frauds are occurring commonly than other plastic money frauds. Due to this Bank credit card issuers lose about $ 1.5 to $ 2 billion every year. Even though the apex bank i.e. RBI has formulated a few guidelines on the international credit cards, Debit cards and Smart cards, an efficient regulation on credit card business is still has to made. And he concluded that the regulation of plastic money business in India is diffused and needs to be streamlined 2 Dr. M. Imran Siddique, and Sana Rehman conducted a study on the topic “ Impact of Electronic crime in Indian Banking Sector – An Overview” In this they explains about credit card frauds and ATM frauds like Card Skimming, Card Swapping, Website Spoofing, card jamming, ATM machine is physical attacked for removing the cash . And he concluded that overall crime cannot be eliminate but it may be reduce by regular checking of banking transactions and create awareness among people about their rights and duties related to it. He also suggested, there is need to bring changes in Information Technology Act to reduce these frauds.

3 Nevil Surani conducted a study on the topic “PlasticW ` Money” In this he analysis plastic money types and plastic money frauds. He says there are varieties of crime in plastic cards. In these, stolen cards at the office, extra copies of charge slips, discarded charge slips, unsigned credit cards, loss of multiple cards, strange requests for your pin numbers, legitimate cards, altered cards, and counterfeit cards are some common types of fraud. 4 Praveen Dalal conducted a study “Preventive measures for ATM frauds” He studied about ATM frauds and preventive measures for both banks and the customers. And he states that The ATM frauds not only cause financial loss to banks but they also undermine customers' confidence in the use of ATMs. So he concluded by giving some preventive measures for both bank and customers. And too he suggested insurance measures that give greater "protection" to the ATMs, particularly those located in less secure areas. 5 Mohammad Asim, Jamal Mohammad Aqib, Khaja Moizuddin Mohammed conducted a study on the topic “The Study of Fraud Analysis & Securing Card Present Transactions” In this study they analysis about Plastic cards fraud in India and frauds level. Study revealed that the customers are on high risk of using magnetic stripe cards which has no or minimum security in the current scenario. Paper also proposed another alternate (EMV chip cards) to improve security to reduce fraud, skimming & cloning. 6 Rajani. V conducted a project on the topic “An evaluation of business deals using plastic money in Kerala” on September 2009. This study presents a detailed account on various aspects of debit cards and credit cards from the point of view of both the cardholders and merchant establishments. This study also provides details about Problems of cardholders in using plastic money and Precautions for both merchants and customers. This study is concluded that it is expected that in the near future the plastic money will acclaim as one of the most widely used as a financial instrument that accelerate business deals and economic prosperity. 7 Abul Kashem Md. Shirin and Nusrat Tamanna Priankain conducted a project on the topic “Plastic Money” on April 2013. This study presents about plastic money pros and cons. Importance of plastic money, Plastic money frauds and prevention of plastic money frauds. 8 Adelowo Solomon Adepoju Mohammed Enagi Alhassan conducted a research “Challenges of Automated Teller Machine (ATM) Usage and Fraud Occurrences in Nigeria”. This research explains about ATM cards and pros and cons of it. The research shows that customers are much comfortable with the electronic banking system, which ATM is just a segment out of various services of e-banking. As the usage of ATM is increasing so it openness to security threat is ascending. As the ATM technology is advancing, fraudsters are on drawing board to see how they come up with different fraud skills to beat the security. Various forms of fraud are perpetuated, ranging from; ATM card theft, Skimming, Pin theft, Card reader techniques, PIN pad techniques, force withdrawal and lot more. And simultaneously prevention of fraud for ATM cards and the frauds against ATM cards increasing. The security measures adopted by some banks are obsolete making the measures less significant and allowing fraud at ATM. 9 Hanna Mohamad conducted a research on the topic “PLASTIC CARD FRAUD” on May 2011. This study presents International fraud prevention measures appear to vary based on the level and type of fraud in each country. The implementation of Chip and Pin technology in many countries, for example, has card displacement (e.g. from skimming/counterfeit card fraud to online card fraud) of credit card fraud. It explains on the base Plastic card fraud in Australia. And the study concludes Countries such as the United Kingdom and United States have improved their fraud prevention strategies by enhancing their coordination between the public and private industry. The establishment of the President’s Identity Theft Taskforce in the United States and the Fraud Intelligence Sharing System in the United Kingdom are evidence of the banking industry, law enforcement and Government working together in addressing fraud problems. 1.6 METHODOLOGY To study the objectives specified, an attempt was made to know the customer awareness toward ATM frauds and guidelines to customer to reduce ATM frauds. It includes sampling design, sources of data collection tools for analysis. 1.6.1 SAMPLING DESIGN The sample for study was drawn from a convince sample of 50 respondents of ATM card customers. 1.6.2 SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION The data was collected both from primary and secondary sources. Primary sources were collected from the sample respondents of customers. Secondary sources were collected from books, website and periodicals. 1.7 TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION A structural questionnaire was designed for collecting data from the customer of maestro card. 2.8 TOOLS FOR ANALYSIS The generated data has been duly analyzed by using statistical tools viz., percentage analysis, tables, bar diagrams, pie diagrams and doughnut diagrams. 2.9 PERIODS OF THIS STUDY The primary data collected for the present research report will cover a period of one year from 2013-2014.For this respondents should be selected from the customer of ATM card. In this period, the respondents awareness and satisfaction level for various aspects is studied. 1.10 LIMITATON OF THE STUDY * The study is confined only to Madurai city * The sample size is 50, this does not represent the whole population * The period of study was too short to a detailed study 1.11 CHAPTER SCHEME Chapter I : Introduction & project design. Chapter II : Theoretical background of study Chapter III : Analysis and interpretation. Chapter IV : Findings & suggestion. Chapter V : Conclusion.

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF STUDY

2.1. ATM
ATMs are one of the most influential technological innovations of the 20th century, which has a rapid increase in the world. ATM is a computerized telecommunications device that provides the customers of a financial institution/ bank with access to financial transactions in public space without the need for human clerk or bank teller round the clock (24 hours a day). In other words, It is a machine permitting a Bank’s the customers to make cash withdrawals and check their account at any time and without the need for a human teller. Many ATMs also allow people to deposit cash or cheque and transfer money between their bank accounts. It plays a vital role in facilitating the banking services to banks as well as customers. ATM is the back bone of retail banking sector.

2.2. HISTORY OF ATM
An Armenian named Luther George Simjian was forced to move to USA in the year 1920, under the account of Armenian Genocide. He owned to his credit the invention of a portrait camera and then rolled out the formulated idea of ATM, the Automated Teller Machine.
Confident of his invention, he persuaded Citibank to run his product on a six month trial basis. Soon enough, he was disappointed with the performance and the lack of users and concluded that ATM was a wasteful addition to personal banking. And lack of demand for the ATM finally forced him to take a back seat. Clear enough; the time was not right for this concept to have been accepted generously. Simjian clearly lost out on the success and fame and the same was passed on to two other gentlemen, John Shepherd-Barron and Don Wetzel.
John Shepherd-Barron was a Scottish national born in India. Later he relocated to Britain and pursued his education from the University of Edinburgh, and at Trinity College, Cambridge. After returning empty handed from the bank, Shepherd-Barron was disappointed to have no other solution to wait till the bank would open next. And thus in a similar fashion like Archimedes, Shepherd-Barron claims to have hit his Eureka moment while taking a bath. A self-sufficient cash dispensing machine was what he was thinking about. And soon the ATM was invented in the early 1960s. The invention of a self-sufficient cash dispensing machine was his second and successful attempt at inventions. Earlier he had invented an instrument to scare away seals at his Scottish Salmon farms. Unfortunately, this device instead of deterring the seals attracted them, and was a failure. The ATM machine gained Shepherd-Barron an ever-lasting recognition in the banking world and paved the way for hi-tech banking techniques, online bank accounts and PIN and chip security technology. The four-digit internationally accepted standard PIN was also invented by him. Earlier, he had a six-digit Army serial number in his mind but later his wife suggested for a shorter PIN as it would be easy to remember. Finally in 1967 that the first ATM that dispensed paper currency round the clock, was unveiled. The ATM machine installed outside a Barclay’s bank in North London started dispensing cash on a 24 hour basis.
There have been a lot of efforts gone into final development of the ATM, the ones we see today, the ones we use so frequently, and the ones which have made our lives revolve around plastic money. The development of ATM ever since its baby steps in the late 1930s and then gearing up for longer runs in the 1960s, and finally a matured and stable stage that we see the ATMs in today. Undoubtedly, most of the ideas and patents contributed for makeover of the ATM from time to time form the backbone of what was initiated as “holes in the wall”.
2.3. ATM IN INDIA:
The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation was the first bank to introduce the ATM concept in India way back in 1987, installed at Andheri East, Mumbai. It was installed by HSBC bank for its Sahar Road Branch. Now, most of the banks have their ATM outlets in India. The ATMs installed were from Diebold.
But now almost every bank provides ATM facilities to their customers. ICICI bank has most number of ATM centres across India. The other banks UTI, HDFC and IDBI are leading in providing ATM facilities to their customers. Public Sector Banks are also taking the installation of ATMs seriously for Indian market. They are either setting up their own ATM centres or entering into tie-ups with other banks. The Corporation Bank has the second largest network of ATMs amongst the Public Sector Banks in India.
Recently, State Bank of India has set up the world’s first-ever floating ATM on a boat in Kerala. The boat with the ATM on board will berth at jetties in Kerala’s huge backwaters through which thousands of people travel daily.
2.4. PROCEDURE FOR USING ATM PROPERLY
ATM can be confusing if you are not familiar with them. If we use it properly it is very easy and safe to access. The following are the procedure for using ATM.
Step 1: Insert card – We need to be sure to look for a picture to see which way our card should be facing when we insert it.
Step 2: Choose a Language – Once our card has been inserted we will have the option to select language. We should select the language which is familiar for us
Step 3: Enter PIN – We need to enter our PIN, which is a four digit number that protects against others using our card
Step 4: Choose a transaction – At this point we are faced with a few choices like balance enquiry, cash withdraw, cash deposit, fund transfer etc. We have to choose correct transaction which we require to do.
Step 5: Choose an account – We may have more than one active account. And they are types of account available. We have to choose which account the inserting account belongs
Step 6: Enter the amount – After selecting the appropriate account we have to enter the amount how much cash we would like to withdraw or transfer or deposit.
Step 7: Collect items – After finishing the transactions, all we need to do now is collect our cash. Don’t forget your card when you finish transaction.
If you miss any step or enter the PIN or amount of cash wrongly press “CANCEL” or “NO” while the device asking confirmation.
2.5. ADVANTAGES OF ATM * ATM provides 24 hours service – ATMs provide service round the clock. The customer can withdraw cash upto a certain a limit during any time of the day or night. * ATM gives convenience to banks customers – ATMS provide convenience to the customers. Now-a-days. ATMs are located at convenient places, such as at the airports, railway stations etc. And not necessarily at the Bank’s premises. It is to be noted that ATMs are installed off-site as well as on site. ATMs provide mobility in banking services for withdrawal. * ATM reduces the workload of banks staff – ATMs reduce the work pressure on bank’s staff and avoids queues in bank premises * ATM provide service without any error – ATMs provide service without error. The customer can obtain exact amount. There is no human error as far as ATMs are concerned. * ATM is very beneficial for travellers – ATMs are of great help to travellers. They need not carry large amount of cash with them. They can withdraw cash from any city or state, across the country and even from outside the country with the help of ATM * ATM provides privacy in banking transactions – Most of all, ATMs provide privacy in banking transactions of the customers. * ATM provides a revenue stream line for financial institutions in card and transaction fees.
2.6. DISADVANTAGES OF ATM: * Security- ATMs do not require the person performing the transaction to present picture identification. Rather, the person must only insert a bank card and enter a personal identification number. If the bank card is stolen and the number ascertained, an unauthorized person can easily access the account. * Inability To Perform Complex Transactions - ATMs can only perform relatively basic transactions. This means that people who need to complete these longer transactions will be forced to use the teller, restricting use of the ATM for people who need to complete simple business. In this sense, the ATM Is rather like the express line in a supermarket--faster for some, but unavailable to others. * Fees – with the advent of ATMs came ATM fees. Not only do banks of which you are not a member charge fees for the use of their ATMs, but users are often charged surreptitious fees by their own banks * Privacy - Unlike banks, in which security guards and tellers are present to ensure the person performing a transaction receives privacy, there is no such guarantee when using an ATM. People may try to spy on users as delicate information appears on the screen, without the user being aware. * Difficulty of Use - The performance of business at an ATM is generally quicker than that at a human teller. However, the ATM is incapable of providing personalized instruction to the user in a way that a human teller can. This can result in longer wait times if the user currently using the machine is struggling to complete a transaction. * Eating a Card - Occasionally, ATMs will malfunction and swallow a user's ATM card. The customer will then be directed to contact a service number or their bank and wait for a repair technician to retrieve this card. While this happens only rarely, if it occurs on a weekend or at night, the user may be left to wait for several days before they can again use their card, something that would not happen with a human cashier. * Presence various constraints – Even is banks make some efforts to introduce ATM services, various constraints like illiteracy, security concern, etc., may not permit that * Limitation of cash withdrawals – Again there is a limitation of cash withdrawals from ATM. * Loss of personnel touch with the Banks – The customers lose the personal touch with their bankers. There is no communicating business between customers and bank.
2.7. CARDS USED IN ATM:
The magnetic strips are cards are used in ATM. There are many types of magnetic strips cards. Mostly debit cards and ATM cards are used in ATM. Some may use other cards.
2.7.1. ATM CARDS
Some banks offer you an ATM card that allows you to withdraw money from your checking account, but only through an ATM machine. An ATM card gets its name from the Automatic Teller Machine. Cards are typically used at automatic teller machines (ATMs) to withdraw cash, make deposits, or transfer funds between accounts. ATM card is used by inserting the card into an automatic teller machine and enter a PIN, for security. The system checks the account for adequate funds before permitting any transaction. Unlike debit cards, ATM cards do not have the Visa® or MasterCard® logo and, in most cases, may not be used to make store purchases directly. ATM cards give you easy access to your money.

2.7.2. DEBIT CARDS
Most banks will offer you a debit card, also known as a check card, when you open your checking account. When you use a debit card, the money comes directly from your checking account, just like when you write a check.
Debit cards look like credit cards—they will have a Visa® or MasterCard® logo on them. However, they are definitely not credit cards. A debit card will not help you build a credit rating Information Panel.
You can use a debit card to make purchases without accumulating interest Information Panel because the money comes directly from your checking account. Debit cards can take the place of writing checks, paying with cash or using a credit card.
Debit cards will also usually double as your ATM card, allowing you to withdraw cash or deposit money at an ATM machine.

2.8. HISTORY OF ATM/DEBIT CARDS:
ATM and debit card transactions take place within a complex infrastructure. To the consumer and merchant, they appear to be seamless and nearly instantaneous. The common attribute of all ATM and debit card transactions is that the transaction is directly linked to the consumer’s bank account – that is, the amount of a transaction is deducted (debited) against the fund in that account.
The history of ATM/Debit cards is an interesting one. The late 1960s marked the beginning of modern ATM and Point of Sale (POS) systems, although the concept of ATM/Debit cards existed prior to this. But it did not use magnetic-stripe cards.
A major part of the development process involved adding a magnetic stripe to a plastic card and developing standards to encode and encrypt information on the stripe. Although the Docutel ATM did the modern magnetic stripe access card, the technology remained primitive compared with today’s. The Docutel ATM only dispensed cash and was an offline machine. To enable payment processing, the machine printed a transaction record that was MICR encoded. By the early 1970 ATM technology advanced to the system.
ATMs were first accessed primarily with credit cards, but in 1972, City National Bank of Cleveland successfully introduced a card with an ATM but on debit card function. In 1980s the ATM system was flourishing. In 1982, VISA acquired ownership positions in the regional network plus. Citibank’s Master and Visa Cards appeared in 1990 along with Taj Premium Card of the Bank of India which has also issued the ATM Card.
Debit cards have been used more extensively in recent years for a number of possible reasons. It is relatively easy to add a debit function to an ATM card and because the base of ATM card holders was well established in the 1980s, it was not difficult for banks to establish a similar base of debit cardholders. Aggressive marketing on the part of banks helped familiarize debit card holders with the instrument, as did the emergence of Visa and MasterCard’s offline debit products, which opened up their credit card infrastructures to debit cardholders

2.9. ATM FRAUD:
ATM fraud refers to fraud with the use of an ATM card whereby the perpetrator of the crime uses the card to immediately withdraw funds from a consumer account using PIN based transactions at the ATM. In other words ATM frauds mean stealing of some one bank card and using it to withdraw their money from ATM. Criminals have developed means to intercept both the data on the card’s magnetic strip as well as the user’s PIN. In turn, the information is used to create fake cards that are then used to withdraw funds from the unsuspecting individual’s account. A particularly effective form of fraud has involved the use of ATMs in shopping centres and convenience stores. Given that ATMs are the preferred method for dispensing currency all over the world, ATM fraud has become an international problem.

2.10. TECHNIQUES USED TO CARRY OUT ATM FRAUDS:
The following are the techniques used to carry out ATM frauds. * Card swapping – where a customer’s ATM card is swapped for another card without their knowledge whilst undertaking an ATM transaction. * Card jamming – where an ATM machine card reader is deliberately tampered with so that a customer’s card will be held in the card reader and cannot be removed from the machine by the customer. The criminal removes the card once the customer has departed. * Vandalism – where an ATM machine is deliberately damaged and/or the card reader is jammed preventing the customer’s card from being inserted. * Physical attacks – where an ATM machine is physically attacked with the intention of removing the cash content. * Mugging – where a client is physically attacked whilst in the process of conducting a transaction at an ATM machine.

2.11. TYPES OF ATM FRAUDS
Fraud against ATMs and people's attempts to use them takes several forms. The following are the ATM frauds which are mostly often in the society.

* Card skimming - Magnetic card information details are compromised by a disguised card reader known as skimming device which is normally installed in front of card reader entry slot or some ATM room-door lock. In other words, the card details and PIN are captured at the ATM and used to produce counterfeit cards for subsequent fraudulent cash withdrawals. The customer sees a normal transaction and retains the card. Multiple cards are compromised in one attack at one ATM. Skimming is by far the most popular method of ATM network attack, accounting for over 80% of ATM fraud. * Card trapping - Trap or jam the card by placed wire, tapes or other mechanism in the card entry slot. Criminals fix a false withdrawal shutter slot, causing cashes to get stuck inside when customers attempt to do a withdrawal. The customer leaves assuming that the machine is out of order or goes inside the bank to report the incident and the thieves return to retrieve the notes. * PIN PAD Overlay - Place a false plastic PIN pad on the original one and text PIN when customer enters * Spy camera - Install a fake advertising box or mailbox with small convert camera inside to observe PIN entry. With the wireless technology developing, the captured PIN can be real-time transited to allowing producing counterfeit card immediately, compared with old stand-still capture method. * Powerful telescope - Scammers observe PIN entry activity and judge PINs from finger movement during operation. * Honey trap - Place an false advertisement, notice or service hotline number * Transaction reversal - Transaction reversal scams use certain methods to create an error condition at the ATM so as to re-credit amounts withdrawn to the account. Sometimes thief removes only portion of the bills from the dispensing tray. They let the ATM “Time out” and retract the rest. * Deposit Fraud - Deposit fraud includes various criminal techniques from making false deposits, trapping deposits through skilful manipulation of ATM with the deposit function. * ATM Skimming - Fraudsters can attach false casings and PIN pad overlay devices onto genuine existing ATMs, or they can attach a camouflaged skimming device onto a card reader entry used in tandem with a concealed camera to capture and record PIN entry details. * Ram Raids / ATM Burglary - The ATM is attacked and either ripped out (Ram Raid) or the safe attacked in-situ (Burglary). The attacks can be carried out by brute force, or by using explosives or gas. * Robbery - The persons replenishing the ATM are attacked either when moving the cash to / from the ATM, or while conducting cash replenishment activities.

2.12. CAUSES OF ATM FRAUDS:
ATM Frauds in India are increasing at an alarming rate. The following are the main and basic causes of ATM frauds. One chief reason for this growth is that Banks in India are not serious about Cyber Security and they are not following the Recommendations of RBI.
ATM Frauds happen when someone leaves his/her credit card unattended in a vehicle or changing room or allows anyone else to use the card or loses the card that is misused by others or discloses the Personal Identification Number (PIN) to others, etc. These mistakes allow the offender to withdraw money by using the stolen information. Fraudsters are using special devices, skimmers; duplicate ATMs, etc to withdraw money from ATMs. Sometimes such frauds are an insider job with the collusion of the employees of the company issuing those cards. However, misuse of the disclosed PIN for withdrawing money is the most common techniques used for committing ATM Frauds.
Another reason for growth of ATM Frauds in India is absence of “Deterrent Law” in this regard. The Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act 2000) is the sole Cyber Law of India. After the Information Technology Amendment Act, 2008 (IT Act 2008) almost all the Cyber Crimes in India have been made “Bail able” Now Cyber Criminals can commit almost all Cyber Crimes, ATM Frauds, Credit Card Frauds, Internet Banking Frauds in India without any fear. It is high time to repeal the Cyber Law of India as soon as possible and enact Strong and Effective Laws in this regard. The IT Act, 2000 does not contain any specific provisions regarding ATM Frauds and Credit Card Frauds and the traditional law of IPC, 1860 also cannot be relied solely and independently to tackle this problem. We need a better law for this purpose andPerry4Law and Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB) have already provided their Suggestions and Recommendations in this regard and other ICT related matters to the Government of India, Department of Information Technology, Department of Science and Technology, Prime Minister’s Office, etc from time to time. Till we have suitable and apt laws, we must apply existing laws in a purposive and updating manner. However, ATM frauds can be tackled by using Techno Legal Methods alone and neither Legal nor Technical Measures is sufficient in itself.

4.13. PRECAUTIONARY SOLUTIONS:
The following are the some precautionary solutions for both banks and customers to eradicate ATM frauds.

4.13.1. FOR BANKS The banks can introduce some technological solutions to eradicate ATM frauds they are * Designated time: The customers can choose times for using ATMs by phone. The customers can change the chosen time any time and even defer total use of ATMs as per their convenience. This method is not only economical but also effective to tackle forged cash card scams as the fraudster has to match not only the password but equally the “timing” as well. * Microchip technology: The banks can also provide cards containing a microchip that can make them harder to forge. * Biometric tokens: Biometrics tokens are the safest bet for prevention of ATM frauds. The most widely used biometric tokens include those of fingerprints, irises, faces and palms. The fraudster can match everything but he can never match the biometric peculiarities. * Enhanced security: The banks may enhance the security features of the ATM’s for providing a better service. * ATM Monitoring: The banks can monitor ATMs continuously by installing closed-circuit cameras and other devices. * Customized software: The banks must use customized software’s that records relevant information on ATM cards or credit cards so that banks can establish whether an unauthorized ATM transaction has taken place by using a counterfeit card; * Customer motivation: The banks must encourage customers to report any suspicious activity on ATMs by providing the basic infrastructure. * Alerts: The bank must alert customers if the customized software’s note any unusual transaction patterns. * Introduce eye scanner in ATM device * Introduce finger prints in ATM device
Rather than this other solutions for reducing ATM frauds * Make changes in Law to reduces * RBI should take more necessary steps to reduce ATM frauds. 4.13.2. FOR CUSTOMERS * Be aware of your surroundings and listen to your gut. If the ATM is poorly lit or in a concealed location, or if you're just not feeling comfortable, use another machine. Avoid counting cash or rummaging through personal items while standing at the ATM. * Guard your PIN. Memorize it and never write it down. Cover the keypad when you enter your PIN, and if you notice suspicious activity, cancel your transaction. You should also take your receipt with you, as it may contain personal information that could be helpful to identity thieves. * When using a drive-through ATM, lock car doors and roll up other windows. If you walk up to the ATM, don't leave your car running or unlocked. And never leave ATM or other credit cards in your car's glove compartment. * When using an indoor ATM that requires your card for access, avoid letting unknown people in with you. * Report lost or stolen cards immediately, and sign your new or replacement card as soon as you receive it. * If you make a mistake entering a number or you pick a choice you didn't mean, press"cancel" or "no". Most machines will ask you "is this correct?" to give you a chance to change your entries. * Some banks do not require a deposit slip. If you're not sure, ask. In this case, you may need to write your account number on the check when you endorse it. * If you are still unsure how to use ATM, go inside the bank or ask an employee or ask someone you trust to help you the first time. * Never let anyone see your PIN. Put your other hand around the keypad when you enter your number, and don't enter your number if anyone is standing too close. * Be sure to end your session. If you forget to then it is possible for the next person to withdraw money from your account without you knowing. * Always remember to take your card back from the machine. Do this as soon as it pops out. If it remains in the slot for more than 30 seconds after the transaction has been completed, the machine will suck it back up to prevent it from being stolen. If the ATM you are using isn't at your bank, it's unlikely that they will return the card to you - you will have to get your bank to issue a new one. * If your card gets sucked in as soon as you insert it, examine the slot very closely: some burglars insert a plastic sleeve that prevents the card from being read, and when you go inside the bank, they will quickly pull it and withdraw as much money as they can. * Some ATMs have a slot where you insert and pull the card rather than just inserting it. If this is the case, examine it very closely to make sure it's all part of the ATM; otherwise, it might be a card cloning device! * Never write your PIN on your card or in your wallet or purse. * The customers, like banks, can also secure themselves the protection of insurance cover for the money lost due to these frauds. This trend is very popular in foreign countries and very soon the same may find a place in India as well.

CHAPTER III ANALYISIS AND INTERPRETATION

TABLE 3.1 AGE OF THE RESPONDENT AGE | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | BELOW 30 YEARS | 38 | 76 | 30-40 YEARS | 7 | 14 | ABOVE 40 YEARS | 5 | 10 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 | SOURCE: Primary data Our respondents are divided according to their age group. We categories age group as below 30, 30-40 years and above 40 years. The above table represents that out of 50 respondents 76% of them falls under the age below 30 years, 14% of them falls under above 40 years, 10% of them falls under 30-40.

FIGURE 3.1 AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS

TABLE 3.2 GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS GENDER | RESPONDENTS | PERCENTAGE | MALE | 24 | 48 | FEMALE | 26 | 52 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 | SOURCE: Primary data Our respondents are differing in two ways according to the gender male and female. The above table represents that out of 50 respondents 48 % falls under male category and 52% falls under female category.

FIGURE 3.2 GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS

TABLE 3.3 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS QUALIFICATION | RESPONDENTS | PERCENTAGE | UPTO SCHOOL | 6 | 12 | UNDER GRADUATE | 14 | 28 | POSTGRADUATE | 27 | 54 | OTHERS | 3 | 6 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 | SOURCES: Primary data We have divided the respondents according to their educational qualification some of them are school level, some of them are under graduate, and some of them are post graduate, some of them are other educational qualified persons. The above table represents that out of 50 respondents 12% are qualified up to school, 28% are under graduates, 54% are post graduates, 6% are other educational qualified.

FIGURE 3.3 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS

TABLE 3.4 OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS OCCUPATION | RESPONDENTS | PERCENTAGE | PROFESSIONAL | 10 | 20 | SELF EMPLOYED | 2 | 4 | EMPLOYED | 20 | 40 | STUDENT | 18 | 36 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 | SOURCE: Primary data Respondents are classified into different occupation. They are classified under professional, self employed, employed, and students. Out of 50 respondents 20% are professional, 4% are self employed, 40% are employed, and 36% are students.

FIGURE 3.4 OCCUPATONAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS

TABLE 3.5
AWARENESS ON THE PROCEDURE FOR USING ATM PROCEEDURE FOR USING ATM | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | KNOWN | 48 | 96 | UNKNOWN | 2 | 4 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
The respondents may be or may not be know the procedure for using the ATM properly. Out of 50 respondents, 96% of respondents are know the procedure for using ATM and only 2% of respondents are unknown the procedure for using ATM

FIGURE: 3.5
AWARENESS ON THE PROCEDURE FOR USING ATM

TABLE: 3.6
RECEIPT OF PROPER GUIDELINES FROM BANK GUIDELINES | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | RECEIVED | 48 | 96 | NOT RECEIVED | 2 | 4 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
The respondents may or may not receive proper guidelines from banks for using ATM properly. Among the respondents, 96% of respondents received proper guidelines from banks for using ATM properly and 4% of respondents do not receives proper guidelines form banks for using ATM properly.

FIGURE: 3.6
RECEIPT OF PROPER GUIDELINES FROM BANK

TABLE: 3.6.1
MODE OF RECEIPT OF GUDIELINES MODE | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | ORAL | 7 | 14.58 | WRITTEN | 31 | 64.58 | E-CONTENT | 10 | 20.83 | TOTAL | 48 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
The guidelines for using ATM properly given by the bank to their customer in the form of oral, written and e-content. Among the respondents who received the guidelines from banks, 14.58% by oral form, 64.58% in written form and 20.83% in E-content.

FIGURE: 3.6.1
MODE OF RECEIPT OF GUIDELINES

TABLE: 3.6.2
INSTRUCTIONS FOLLOWED BY CUSTOMERS INSTRUCTIONS | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | FOLLOWED | 45 | 93.75 | NOT FOLLOWED | 3 | 6.25 | TOTAL | 48 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
The banks providing instructions to their customers for using ATM properly. The customers may or may not the follow the instructions. The instructions are given by the bank are followed by 93.75% of customers and are not followed by 6.25% of customers.

FIGURE: 3.6.2
INSTRUCTIONS FOLLOWED BY CUSTOMERS

TABLE: 3.6.3
REQUIREMENT FOR MORE GUIDELINES GUIDELINES | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | REQUIRED | 38 | 79.17 | NOT REQUIRED | 10 | 28.83 | TOTAL | 48 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
The some of the customers may think that the guidelines given by the banks for using ATM in properly are inadequate. But some of the customers think that the guidelines given by the banks are adequate. Hence they may or may not require more guidelines Among the respondents, 79.17% requires more guidelines for using ATM properly, which is given by banks and 28.83% does not require more guideline for using ATM.

FIGURE: 3.6.3
REQUIREMENT FOR MORE GUIDELINES

TABLE: 3.7
USAGE OF ATM IN A REMOTE/SUSPICIOUS AREA ATM IN A REMOTE/SUSPICIOUS AREA | RESPONDENTS | PERCENTAGE | USED | 16 | 32 | NOT USED | 34 | 68 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
Some customers may hesitate to use ATM in a remote/suspicious area but some may use ATM in a remote/suspicious area. Among the respondents, 32% of respondents do not avoid using ATM in remote/suspicious area and 68% of respondents avoid using ATM in remote/suspicious area.

FIGURE: 3.7
USAGE OF ATM IN A REMOTE/SUSPICIOUS AREA

TABLE: 3.8
USAGE OF ATM BESIDES UNKNOWN PERSON ATM BESIDES UNKNOWN PERSON | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | USED | 9 | 18 | NOT USED | 41 | 82 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
The customer may hesitate to use ATM while an unknown person stands beside them. But some customers use ATM while an unknown person stands beside them. Among the respondents, 9% respondents use ATM while an unknown person stands beside them and 82% respondents will not use ATM while an unknown person stands beside them.

FIGURE: 3.8
USAGE OF ATM BESIDES UNKNOWN PERSON

TABLE: 3.9
CLOSING THE ENTRY DOOR WHILE USING ATM ENTRY DOOR | RESPONDENTS | PERCENTAGE | CLOSED | 36 | 72 | OPENED | 14 | 28 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
The customer may or may not close the entry door while they using ATM. Among the respondents, 72% of respondents close the entry door while they using ATM and 14% of respondents do not close the entry door while they using ATM.

FIGURE: 3.9
CLOSING THE ENTRY DOOR WHILE USING ATM

TABLE: 3.10
LENDING THE CARD OR PIN TO STRANGER’S CARD OR PIN TO OTHERS | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | LEND | 0 | 0 | DOES NOT LEND | 50 | 100 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
Some customer’s may give their card or PIN to stranger’s to do a transaction on behalf of them as they don’t know how to use ATM. But some customer’s even though they don’t how to use ATM they will not lend their card or PIN to others to do a transaction on behalf of them. Among the respondents, no will not give their card or PIN to stranger’s to do a transaction for them.

FIGURE: 3.10
LENDING THE CARD OR PIN TO STRANGER’S

TABLE: 3.11
LEAVE THE ATM BEFORE CANCELLING OR COMPLETING THE TRANSACTION LEAVE THE ATM | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | BEFORE CANCELLING OR COMPLETING THE TRANSACTION | 15 | 30 | AFTER CANCELLING OR COMPLETING THE TRANSACTION | 35 | 70 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
If the transaction takes more time to complete than usual, some of the customers may leave the ATM before properly cancel or completing the transaction because they thought that there is some problem in ATM device. But some of the customers will not exit the ATM before they properly cancel o complete the transaction. Among the respondents, 30% of respondents will leave the ATM before they complete/ cancel the transaction and 70% of respondents will not leave the ATM before they complete/cancel the transactions properly.

FIGURE: 3.11
LEAVING THE ATM BEFORE CANCELLING OR COMPLETING THE TRANSACTION

TABLE: 3.12
MENTION THE PIN IN THE CARD PIN IN THE CARD | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | MENTION | 7 | 14 | NOT MENTION | 43 | 86 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
Some of the customers may write the PIN in their card as they forgot the PIN. But some of them may hesitate to write to the PIN even though they have habit of forgot. Among the respondents, 14% of respondents write the PIN in their card and 86% of respondents will not write the PIN in their card.

FIGURE: 3.12
MENTION THE PIN IN THE CARD

TABLE: 3.13
USAGE OF ATM DEVICE WHILE THEY SUSPECT
ATM DEVICE HAS BEEN TAMPERED ATM DEVICE HAS BEEN TAMPERED | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | USED | 18 | 36 | NOT USED | 32 | 64 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
The customers may hesitate to use ATM device while they suspect ATM device has been tampered. But some customers use the ATM device even though they suspect ATM device has been tampered. Among the respondents, 36% of respondents will use the ATM device even though they suspect the ATM device has been tampered but 64% of respondents will not use the ATM device if they suspect the ATM device has been tampered.

FIGURE: 3.13
USAGE OF ATM DEVICE WHILE THEY SUSPECT
ATM DEVICE HAS BEEN TAMPERED

TABLE: 3.14
INFORM THE BANK IMMEDIATELY ABOUT LOST CARD LOST CARD INFORMATION | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | INFORMED THE BANK | 48 | 96 | NOT INFORMED THE BANK | 2 | 4 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
If the customers lost their ATM card, they will inform the bank immediately. But some customers will not inform the bank immediately. Among the respondents, 96% will inform the bank immediately if they lost the card but 4% will not inform the bank immediately if they lost the card.

FIGURE: 3.14
INFORM THE BANK IMMEDIATELY ABOUT LOST CARD

TABLE: 3.15
CHECKING OF BANK ACCOUNTS REGULARLY BANK ACCOUNTS | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | CHECKED | 40 | 80 | NOT CHECKED | 10 | 20 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
Some customers may check their bank accounts balance regularly to make sure there is no unusual or unauthorized transaction. But customers may not check their banks account balance regularly to make sure there is no unusual or unauthorized transaction. Among the respondents, 80% of respondents will check their bank accounts balance regularly to make sure there is no unusual or unauthorized transaction but 20% will not check their bank accounts balance regularly to make sure there is no unusual or unauthorized transaction.

FIGURE: 3.15
CHECKING OF BANK ACCOUNTS REGULARLY

TABLE: 3.16
INFORM THE BANK IMMEDIATELY ON FINDING OF ANY UNAUTHORIZED ATM TRANSACTION UNAUTHORIZED ATM TRANSACTION | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | INFORM BANK | 49 | 98 | NOT INFORM BANK | 1 | 2 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
Mostly the customers inform their bank immediately as they find any unauthorized ATM transaction. But some customers may not inform the bank immediately as they find any unauthorized ATM transaction. Among the respondents, 98% of respondents will inform the bank immediately if they found any unauthorized ATM transaction but 2% of respondents will not inform the bank immediately if they found any unauthorized ATM transaction.

FIGURE: 3.16
INFORM THE BANK IMMEDIATELY ON FINDING OF ANY UNAUTHORIZED ATM TRANSACTION

TABLE: 3.17
USAGE OF ATM DEVICE WITH ANY OLD EQUIPMENT OR WIRES ATM DEVICE WITH ANY OLD EQUIPMENT OR WIRE | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | USED | 3 | 6 | NOT USED | 47 | 94 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
The customers may hesitate to use ATM device if they found any odd equipment of wires attached to the device. But some customers may not hesitate to use ATM device if they found any odd equipment of wires attached to the device. Among the respondents, only few respondents (i.e.) 6% respondents will use the ATM device even though they found any odd equipments or wires attached to ATM device but mostly the respondents (i.e.) 94% respondents will not use the ATM device if they found any odd equipments or wires attached to ATM.

FIGURE: 3.17
USAGE ATM DEVICE WITH ANY OLD EQUIPMENT OR WIRES ATTACHED TO ATM DEVICE

TABLE: 3.18
INFORM THE BANK IF CARD STUCK IN ATM CARD STUCK IN ATM | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | INFORM BANK | 48 | 96 | NOT INFORM BANK | 2 | 4 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
Mostly customers inform the bank immediately if the card stuck in ATM device. But some customers may not inform the bank immediately. Among the respondents, 98% will inform the bank immediately if their card stuck in ATM but 4% will not inform the bank immediately if their card stuck in ATM.

FIGURE: 3.18
INFORM THE BANK IF CARD STUCK IN ATM

TABLE: 3.19
ACTION OF CUSTOMERS IF CASH DOES NOT DISPENSED AFTER ENTERING PIN CASH DOES NOT DISPENSED | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | INFORM BANK/ GUARD IMMEDIATELY | 42 | 84 | LEAVE THE ATM COUNTER | 4 | 8 | GET HELP FROM OTHERS | 4 | 8 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
If cash does not dispensed after entering PIN, the customers inform bank/ guard immediately but some customers may leave the ATM counter or get help from others. Among the respondents, 84% of respondents will inform the bank/guards immediately and 8% of respondents will leave the ATM counter and 8% of respondents will come out from ATM to get help from others.

FIGURE: 3.19
ACTION OF CUSTOMERS IF CASH DOES NOT DISPENSED AFTER ENTERING PIN

TABLE: 3.20
USAGE OF ATM TO WITHDRAW LARGE AMOUNT OF CASH USAGE OF ATM | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | OFTEN | 20 | 40 | ONLY IF NEEDED | 30 | 60 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
The customers may hesitate to use ATM often to withdraw large amount of cash. But some other customers may not hesitate to use ATM often to withdraw large amount of cash. Among the respondents, 40% of respondents will not often use ATM to withdraw large amount of cash and 60% will often use ATM to withdraw large amount of cash.

FIGURE: 3.20
USAGE OF ATM TO WITHDRAW LARGE AMOUNT OF CASH

TABLE: 3.21
PAY ATTENTION TO DISPLAY SCREEN WHILE ENTERING PIN ATTENTION TO DISPLAY SCREEN | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | PAYED | 27 | 54 | NOT PAYED | 23 | 46 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
Some customers may pay attention to display screen while entering PIN but some customers may not pay attention to display screen while entering PIN. Among the respondents, 54% of respondents will pay attention to display screen while they entering PIN but 46% of respondents will not pay attention to display screen while they entering PIN.

FIGURE: 3.21
PAY ATTENTION TO DISPLAY SCREEN WHILE ENTERING PIN

TABLE: 3.22
REQUIREMENT OF GUARD IN ATM COUNTER

GUARD IN ATM COUNTER | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | ESSENTIAL | 42 | 84 | NOT ESSENTIAL | 8 | 16 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
The customers may or may not think that guard is essential for each ATM counter. Among the respondents, 84% of respondents think that a guard is essential for each ATM counter and 16% of respondents think that a guard is not essential for each ATM counter.

FIGURE: 3.22
REQUIREMENT OF GUARD IN ATM COUNTER

TABLE: 3.23
CARD SWIPING AT THE ENTRY DOOR AVOID ATM FRAUDS ATM FRAUDS | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | AVOIDED | 42 | 84 | NOT AVOIDED | 8 | 16 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
The customers may think card swiping at the entry door avoid ATM frauds. But some customers may think card swiping at the entry door does not avoid ATM frauds. Among the respondents, 84% of respondents think that the card swiping at entry door will avoid ATM frauds but 16% of respondents think that the card swiping at entry door will not avoid ATM frauds.

FIGURE: 3.23
CARD SWIPING AT THE ENTRY DOOR AVOID ATM FRAUDS

TABLE: 3.24
OTHER PROBLEM FACED WHILE USING ATM PROBLEMS | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | FACED | 3 | 6 | NOT FACED | 47 | 94 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
Some customers may face any other problem while they using ATM but all the customers may not face any other problem while they using ATM. Among the respondents, 6% of respondents faced any other problem while they using ATM but 94% of respondents not faced any other problem while they using ATM.

FIGURE: 3.24 OTHER PROBLEM FACED WHILE USING ATM

TABLE: 3.25
SUGGESTIONS TO ERADICATE ATM FRAUDS SUGGESIONS | RESPONDENT | PERCENTAGE | GIVEN | 18 | 36 | NOT GIVEN | 32 | 64 | TOTAL | 50 | 100 |

SOURCE: Primary data
Some customer may have any suggestions to eradicate ATM frauds. Some other customers may not have any suggestion to eradicate ATM frauds. Among the respondents, 36% of respondents have given their suggestions to eradicate ATM frauds and 64% of respondents have not given their suggestions to eradicate ATM frauds.

FIGURE: 3.25
SUGGESTIONS TO ERADICATE ATM FRAUDS

CHAPTER IV FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS

4.1. FINDINGS
There are 50 respondents who are the customers using ATM’s, have given information about their knowledge on ATM frauds and the findings of the study is given below * The respondents are classified according to their age group. Out of 50 respondents 76% of respondents are below 30 years. * The respondents are divided under the category of gender. 52% of respondents are female. * All the respondents are educated. The respondents are classified according to their educational qualification. Out of 50 respondents, most of the respondents are post graduated ( i.e. ) 54% * The respondents are classified according to their occupational status. Among the respondents, 40% of respondents are employed. * The respondent’s knowledge towards the ATM procedure to use properly. Most of the respondents (i.e.) 96% are know the procedure to use ATM properly. As they known the procedure to use ATM properly, this will reduce ATM frauds and as well as they may know about ATM frauds too. * Out of 50 respondents, 96% of respondents received guidelines from banks to use ATM properly. In that guidelines bank mention about ATM frauds and precautions towards ATM frauds. Hence, by receiving proper guidelines from banks, the customers may get aware of ATM frauds. * Bank may give guidelines in oral, written and e-content form. The guidelines giving in a written form is more effective than giving in oral or e-content form. Among the respondents, 64.58% respondents receive guidelines in written form. Hence, this may create effective awareness among the respondents. * 93.75% of respondents follow the guidelines given by the banks for using ATM properly. As they follow the guidelines they may aware of ATM frauds. * As 79.17% of respondents were require more guidelines for using ATM properly and to eradicate ATM frauds. This shows that most of the respondents were aware of ATM frauds. * Usage of ATM in suspicious/remote area is not safe. This may lead to ATM frauds. Among the respondents, 68% of respondents will not use ATM in suspicious/remote area. As they hesitate to use ATM in suspicious/ remote area shows that they are aware of ATM frauds. * Usage of ATM when an unknown person besides him/her is not safe as it is lead to ATM frauds. 82% of respondents will not use ATM when an unknown person besides him/her. This shows that the respondents are aware of ATM frauds. * Closing the entry door of ATM while using ATM is safe against ATM frauds. 72% of respondents will close the entry door of ATM while they using ATM. As they close the door while using ATM shows that they are aware of ATM frauds. * Lending the card or PIN to strangers/other to do transactions on behalf them as they don’t know how to operate ATM. This may lead to ATM frauds. Out of 50 respondents, all the respondents (i.e.) 100% of will not lead their card or PIN to strangers/other persons even though they don’t know how to operate ATM. As a result all the respondents are aware of ATM frauds. * Leaving the ATM before they cancel or complete the transactions properly are not a safe. 70% of respondents will not leave the ATM before they cancel or complete the transactions properly. It shows that they are aware of ATM frauds. * As we are human being we have the habit of forgetting. Even though we have the habit of forgetting we should not mention the PIN in our card. Because it is not safe as the rate of ATM frauds are increasing. 86% of respondent does not mention their PIN in their card. Hence, they are aware of ATM frauds. * The usage of ATM device if they suspect ATM device has been tampered. If ATM tampered it’s an identification of ATM frauds. 64% of respondents will not use ATM if they suspect ATM device has been tampered. Because, they are aware of ATM frauds. * If the customers lost the ATM card they should inform the bank immediately to reduce the ATM frauds. 96% of respondents will inform the bank immediately if they lost the ATM card. This shows that they were aware of ATM frauds. * The customers should check their account balance regularly to make sure there is no unusual or unauthorized transaction. Its help them to avoid ATM frauds. Among the respondents, 80% of respondents will check their account balance regularly. They check regularly because they were aware of ATM frauds * If the customers found any unauthorized ATM transaction while checking their account balance should inform the bank immediately. This will help to avoid any misunderstanding with bank in future and to avoid any ATM frauds. 98% of respondents will inform the bank immediately if they found any unauthorized ATM transactions. This shows that they are aware of ATM frauds. * Usage of ATM while they found any odd equipment of wires attached to the device is not safe. It is an identification of ATM fraud. 94% of respondents will not use ATM because they may aware of ATM frauds. * If card stuck in ATM device while they using ATM should inform the bank immediately. Because it may lead to ATM frauds. Out of respondents, 96% of respondents will inform the bank immediately as they aware of ATM frauds. * If cash does not dispensed after entering PIN, the customers inform bank/ guard immediately but some customers may leave the ATM counter or get help from others. But the wise act is to inform bank/guard immediately. 84% of respondents will inform the bank/guards immediately as they aware of ATM frauds. * Often use of ATM to withdraw large amount of cash is not safe because this may lead to ATM frauds. 60% will not use often ATM to withdraw large amount of cash as they may aware of ATM frauds. * Paying attention to display screen while they entering PIN is wise act to avoid ATM frauds. 54% of respondents will pay attention as they aware of ATM frauds. * Guard is essential in every ATM counter to reduce ATM. 84% of respondents think that guard is essential in every ATM. This shows that they were aware of ATM frauds. * The card swiping at the entry door avoids ATM frauds. Out of respondents, 84% of respondents think that it will avoid ATM frauds as they were aware of ATM frauds. * 94% of respondents does not face any other problem while they using ATM. * 64% of respondent does not provide any suggestions to eradicate to avoid/reduce ATM frauds. Because they may not fully aware of ATM frauds. 4.2 SUGGESTIONS The following are the recommended suggestions to create awareness among the people/customers about ATM frauds and it is also a duty of bank to create awareness among their customers and public about ATM frauds. * Explain their customers about ATM frauds while they issuing card itself * Issue written guidelines about ATM frauds along with issuing guidelines to use ATM * Issue notice or pamphlets, publish in leading newspapers * Detailed “do’s and don’ts” on the website of the bank about ATM frauds * Messages along with statement of accounts, either physical or online about ATM frauds * Messages about ATM frauds on bank’s stationery such as envelopes, card, covers, etc. * SMS alerts and personal mailing about ATM frauds * Messages about ATM frauds on phone banking when the customer calls * An inserts or on the jackets of cheque books about ATM frauds * Posters about ATM frauds in branches and ATM centers * Interstitials on television and radio about ATM frauds * Bank can conduct awareness program about ATM frauds to students in colleges, schools etc. this will create good awareness impact among the public * Bank can also conduct awareness program about ATM frauds in villages or public places where people will meet often. * Banks can also conduct seminar or work shop about ATM frauds to students, staffs, valuable customers. * Banks can also give training to their staffs how to create awareness about ATM frauds among people * RBI should take steps to create awareness about ATM frauds among people * Encourage employees who create awareness about ATM frauds by rewarding them * The government/social institutions/educational institutions can also conduct awareness program/seminar/work shop about ATM frauds. This will create great awareness among the public.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION

5.1. CONCLUSION:
From the day starting of ATM there is ATM fraud. Day by day ATMs usage and technology for preventing ATM frauds is increasing along with the increasing in ATM fraud. ATM fraud is growing because it produces cash and is fairly low risk relative to other crimes. The necessary equipment for perpetrator activity is inexpensive, readily available and expendable, which makes ATM fraud popular among organized crime organizations. Even so, consumer confidence in ATMs remains high, and industry efforts to combat fraud, increase consumer awareness and promote ATM security seem to be outpacing the growth rate of criminal activity.
Customer awareness is one of the pillars of fraud prevention. It has been seen that alert customers have enabled prevention of several frauds and in case of frauds which could not be avoided, helped in bringing the culprit to book by raising timely alerts. Among the respondents, we conclude that in Madurai city most of the people were aware of ATM frauds but still they are not fully aware of ATM frauds. Their knowledge about ATM frauds is not sufficient. Banks should thus aim at continuously educating its customers and solicit their participation in various preventive/detective measures. It is the duty of all the groups in banks and the governments to create fraud risk awareness amongst their respective customers.

BIBILIOGRAPHY

REFERENCE: 1. Pathak, Bharat V. (2004), “Indian Financial System”, Pearson Education. 2. Reserve Bank of India (2011), “Report on Cyber Fraud”, Jan 21 3. Anand, S. and V. Murugaiah (2006). “Internet Banking in India: Emerging Issues and Challenges” The Indian Banker, March. 4. Annamalai, S. and Muthu R. liakkuvan (2008), “Retail Transaction: Future Bright for Plastic Money”, May. 5. Retail Banking Research (2011), “Global ATM Market and Forecasts to 2016”, Brochure Pg. No: 2, Sept 2 6. Dalal, Praveen (2011), “Preventive measures for ATM frauds”, naavi.org (online)&Available<http://www.naavi.org/cl_editorial_04/praveen_dalal/ATM_frauds_feb19.htm> Jan 3 2014 7. Dalal, Praveen (2011), “ATM Frauds in India and Their Techno Legal Preventive Measures”, International ICT Policies and Strategies (Online) & Available http://ictps.blogspot.in/> Jan 3 2014 8. Verma, Samidha (2000), “Invention Story of ATM”, Engineers Garage (Online) & Available http://www.engineersgarage.com/invention-stories/atm-history> Jan 4 2014 9. Anonymous (2001), “Fraud Prevention Reference Guide”, Certegy, Sept 21 10. Ahuja. A.V (2010) “Cyber Crime in Banking Sector” (Online) & Available http://www.scribd.com/doc/28079943/Cyber-Crime-in-Banking-sector, p.6 11. http://www.diebold.com/Diebold%20Asset%20Library/dbd_atmfraudandsecurity_whitepaper.pdf 12. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/3455/7/07_chapter%203.pf 13. http://www.slideshare.net/tejinderubs/automated-teller-machines 14. http://www.identity-theft-awareness.com/atm-fraud.html 15. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/indian-banks-not-taking-data-security-very seriously/1/129039.html 16. http://www.bankinfosecurity.in/atm-fraud-c-245 17. www.fraudinvestigator.co.za 18. www.scambusters.org

ANNEXURE

ABBREVIATIONS * ATM – Automated Teller Machine * CVV – Card Verification Value * EMV – Euro pay Master card and Visa * HDFC – Housing Development Finance Corporation * HSBC - Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation * ICICI – Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India * ICT - Information and Communication Technology * IDBI – Industrial Development Bank of India * IPC – Indian Penal Code * IT Act – Information Technology Act * PIN – Personal Identification Number * PTLB - Perry4Law Techno Legal Base * RBI – Reserve Bank of India * TCL – TeCho Legal Method * USA – United States America * UTI – Unit Trust of India * VISA – Visa International Service Association

QUESTIONNAIRE
Respected Sir/Madam,
I am K.MAHASAKTHI, studying III year B.com (Banking & Insurance) in Lady Doak College. I am doing project on “A study on customer awareness towards ATM frauds in Madurai city” as a part of our curriculum. We have to undertake a survey on the given topic. Hence I request you to help me by filling up this questionnaire. All the information that we collect is strictly for study purpose and will be dealt with at most confidentiality.
Yours Sincerely,
K. MAHASAKTHI

_____________________________________________________________________
PERSONAL INFORMATION:
Name:
Age: Below 30 years 30 – 40 years Above 40 years
Gender:
Male Female
Education Qualification: Up to School Under Graduate Post Graduate Others
Occupation:
Professional Self Employed Employed Student

AWARENESS ON ATM PROCEDURE: 1. Do you know the procedure to use ATM? Yes No 2. Does the bank provide proper guidelines for using ATM? Yes No
If Yes, A. In what form do they provide? Oral Written E-Content B. Do you follow the instruction provided by the bank? Yes No
AWARENESS ON ATM FRAUD: 3. Do you use ATM in a remote/suspicious area? Yes No 4. Do you use ATM while an unknown person stands beside you? Yes No 5. Do you close the entry door while using the ATM? Yes No 6. Do you give your card or PIN to stranger’s to do a transaction for you? 7. Yes No 8. Do you leave the ATM counter before you properly complete or cancel the transaction? Yes No 9. Do you write down the PIN in the card? Yes No 10. If you suspect the ATM device has been tampered with, will you use the device? Yes No 11. If you lose the ATM card will you inform the bank immediately? Yes No 12. Do you check your bank accounts regularly to make sure there is no unusual or unauthorised transaction? Yes No 13. If you find any unauthorized ATM transaction on your bank account, will you inform the bank immediately? Yes No 14. If you find any odd equipment or wires attached to the device, will you use the ATM? Yes No

15. If your card is stuck in the ATM, will you inform the bank immediately? Yes No 16. If cash is not dispensed after you have entered the PIN, what will you do? Inform Bank/Guard immediately Leave the ATM counter Get out of the ATM counter to get help from others 17. Do you often use ATM’s to withdraw large amount of cash? Yes No 18. Do you pay attention as you enter PIN whether it gets displayed on the screen? Yes No 19. Do you think a guard is essential for each ATM counter? Yes No 20. Do you think card swiping at the entry door avoid frauds? Yes No 21. Do you face any other problems while using ATM? Yes No
If Yes, Specify_______________ 22. Do you have any suggestions to eradicate ATM frauds? Yes No
If Yes, Specify_______________

THANK YOU

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. http://www.popcenter.org/problems/credit_card_fraud/PDFs/Bhatla.pdf
[ 2 ]. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/10144/16/16_chapter%208.pdf
[ 3 ]. http://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCoQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fojs.excelingtech.co.uk%2Findex.php%2FIJBIT%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F143%2F100&ei=FcdsUr2LOce3rgfvjIHoDg&usg=AFQjCNEcTGtkkXbrWsHwSi-xQLkU5z3lhQ&bvm=bv.55123115,d.bmk
[ 4 ]. http://www.scribd.com/doc/43888714/Plastic-Money-Full-Project
[ 5 ]. http://www.naavi.org/cl_editorial_04/praveen_dalal/atm_frauds_feb19.htm
[ 6 ]. http://www.ijerd.com/paper/vol1-issue9/C0191518.pdf
[ 7 ]. http://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://dyuthi.cusat.ac.in/xmlui/bitstream/handle/purl/2867/Dyuthi-T0864.pdf?sequence%3D1&chrome=true
[ 8 ]. http://it-in-banking.blogspot.in/2013/04/plastic-money.html
[ 9 ]. http://www.arraydev.com/commerce/jibc/2010-08/Solomon.pdf
[ 10 ]. http://www.crimeprevention.nsw.gov.au/agdbasev7wr/_assets/cpd/m660001l2/plastic%20card%20fraud%20background%20paper.pdf…...

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